Monarchy: the role of the queen in modern society, the royal prerogatives and
functions, the royal family, the main sources of income, principal ceremonials
connected with royalty, royal residences, the perception of monarchy in society
is called the dignified part of the Constitution as
opposed to the efficient part – the executive (the Government). Under the
British Constitution the Monarch remains the head of state which effectively
means that British people are not citizens but Her Majesty’s subjects.
Prerogatives – an action of the Government that gets its legitimacy from the crown
(there are certain actions that the Government performs, they are ultimately
approved by the Queen.) It is a fiction because the Queen is advised on most of
her actions by her Government.
1: to appoint
the PM at the end of the election (normally the leader of the party that has
the majority in the HC)
2: to summon,
dissolve the Parliament.
to give her Royal Assent to bills when they’ve been passed by both Houses.
war / makes peace
foreign states and governments
7: annexes /
8: head of
judiciary = all the courts of the land are the Queen’s Courts – all the trials
carried out in the Queen’s name (Regina vs. Jones)
Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
governor of the Church of England
formal appointments to the most important offices of the state in the Armed
Forces and churches
peerages, knighthoods and other honours
approval to decisions of the Government is given at the meetings of the Privy
14: the Queen
of 16 former colonies, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, represented by
the governor. The Head of the Commonwealth (16 + some more other countries)
role of the Queen (monarch) was first explicitly formulated by the 19 cent
writer and journalist Walter Bagehot (the English Constitution 1867). Famous
triple formula: the Queen has the right to be consulted, the right to encourage
and the right to warn.
studies cabinet papers, foreign office documents, receives a report of the
parliamentary proceedings, regularly sees the PM in audience, in constant touch
with foreign ambassadors and the Commonwealth representatives.
symbolic role: the unity of the nation, historical traditions and continuity.
Defender of the Faith – only Anglicans can succeed to the throne. Spiritual
head of state, the archbishop of Canterbury crowns the monarch.
(Canterbury and York) and 24 bishops, deans of Cathedrals (appointed by the
Queen, advised by the PM). The Queen has ecclesiastic household – the College
of Chaplains, the Chaplains and organists of the Chapels Royal at the Tower of
London, St. James Palace and Hampton Court. The Royal Peculiars – not subjects
to the jurisdiction of archbishops, they are monarch’s.
A number of special
royal occasions, taking place regularly each year: the state opening of the
Parliament – October, November (unless there has been general election). The
Queen rides in a state carriage from Buckingham palace to the palace of
Westminster (HL), reads her speech from the throne, wears a crown, speech
prepared by the governor. The Remembrance day – in November, service in the
White Hall for the dead of the 2WW, lays a wreath at the Cenotaph. June – goes
to the Derby at Epsom, later in June at Windsor for the Royal Ascot. Second
Saturday of June – official birthday. The Trooping of he Colour, Horse Guards
Parade, birth honours are given. In summer 3 garden parties are given in the
grounds of Buckingham palace – all people – each attended by ~ 8,000 people of
different walks of life; tea, cakes, brass band.
– 350 courtiers, Private Secretary, ladies-in-waiting, the Mistress of the
Robes, Ladies (Gentlemen) of the Bedchamber.
The Finance. More than ¾ of
the Queen’s expenses is met by relevant government debts. £15,3mln –
palaces (3 official residences – Buckingham palace in London, Holyrood palace
in Edinburgh, Windsor castle). The Civil List – money provided by the
Government and often by the Parliament, on a 10-year basis for the running of
the Queen’s household. 2001-2011 – £7,9mln. Besides the Queen receives an
income – the Duchy of Lancaster (the crown estate > 19,000 hectares) –
annual income £7,3mln before tax.
The Duke of Edinburgh
(husband), children (Princess Royal Ann, Prince Andrew, Edward) – receive
annuities, but the Queen refunds all except the husband, he’s the only who
receives strictly. The Queen pays for her children, they live at her expense.
Prince Charles – the Heir to the Throne; Duchy of Cornwall – income, in 2003 ~ £10mln
- ~ ¼ income tax. The Queen offered to pay tax on voluntary basis –
decides how much to pay, on her private income, e.g. on part of the Civil List
used for private purposes (e.g. banquet for friends). Others pay income tax on
regular basis like ordinary citizens.
The Civil List
is administrated by the so-called Keeper of the Privy Purse.
Royal residences. Sandringham (East Anglia), Balmoral (Scotland), Clarence House (Queen
Mother resided), St. James’s Palace (Prince Charles, the minor royals),
Kensington Palace (Diana). Grace and favour apartments, free of charge.
Queen’s husband – Philip the Duke of Edinburgh (1921) – famous for his quips.
Princess Royal Ann, daughter. The Prince of Wales (1948), Heir to the Throne –
Heir Apparent. Prince William (21 now) – Heir Presumptive, Prince Henry (1984).
Prince Andrew (1960) – the Duke of York, Prince Edward (1964) – the Earl of
of monarchy in society – it has its symbolic role, unity, continuity, but young
people are far from it, the general attitude – not interested, attracts
national symbols of Britain and its constituent parts (the National flag,
anthem, the national emblems, the Royal Beasts). The system of titles and
National Flag – the Union Jack. Combination of three crosses – St. George’s cross –
England, red cross on a white ground; the cross of St. Andrew for Scotland –
white diagonal cross on a blue ground; the cross of St. Patrick for Ireland –
red diagonal on a white ground. First introduced in 1606, had 2 crosses, union
of England and Scotland (James I), 1801 – St. Patrick added.
Rose for England, thistle for Scotland, daffodil (leek) for Wales, shamrock
(wild sorrel, red hand) for Ireland. Crown, scepter, sword of state, orb.
Monogram ER –
Elizabeth Royal. In the centre of the emblem is situated a heraldic shield,
divided into 4 parts. Left upper part & right lower part symbolize England
(3 gold leopards on a red ground). Right upper part – Scottish emblem (a red
lion on a gold ground). Left lower part – Irish emblem (yellow harp on a blue
ground). Around the shield – garter. The shield is held by two Royal Beasts the
Lion with the crown in the left, the Unicorn in the right. Under them a blue
ribbon with words “Dieu et mon droit” (God & my right) – Richard I. In the background – rose
(England), thistle (Scotland), trefoil (Ireland), leek (Wales).
National Anthem – God Save the Queen (King). Adopted after the War with Napoleon.
Lion of England, the Unicorn of Scotland, the Red Dragon of Wales, the Grey
Hound of Richmond, the White Horse of Hanover, the Griffin of Edward III, the
Falcon of the Plantagenets.
of titles and honours. Twice a year (at the New Year and on the Queen’s official
birthday – the Queen’s birthday honours) – solemn ceremony. 3000 honours are
given annually – the majority the Order of the British Empire, most on PM’s
advice, a few in the Queen’s personal gift.
The Order of
the Garter (since Edward III 14th cent.) – 24 people at once, the Queen is a
sovereign of the Order of the Garter, blue ribbon, Prince Charles, + foreign,
e.g. the King of Spain. The Order of the Thistle – 16 knights, green ribbon.
The Order of Merit (1902) – 24 people. Royal Victorian Order (1896) – who have
directly served the Royal Family. The Order of the Bath (1725) – ceremonial ablutions,
crimson ribbon. The Order of the British Empire: 5 degrees – member of the
British Empire (MBE), officer (OBE), commander (CBE), knight commander (KBE) or
dame commander (DBE), knight/dame grand cross (GBE). Lists are made by members
of the public. Remain commoners, no special privileges, titles are not
hereditary. Highest honour – peerage, historically hereditary, and since 1959
The 5 grades –
Duke / Duchess (Your Grace), Marquis / Marchioness (My Lord), Earl / Countess
(-“-), Viscount / Viscountess, Baron / Baroness. Connected with person’s
occupation. On formal dresses – strawberry leaves, a coronet consisting of 8
strawberry leaves, 4 silver falls and 4 strawberry leaves for a marquis. Peers
can disclaim their title, to get the right to sit in the HC – the title falls
into abeyance, means title waits until this person dies and his son accepts it.
The elder sons of peers have courtesy title, one degree lower than their
fathers’. Duke can deprive his son inheritance, but no right to deprive of the
Members of the
House of Commons (MPs) are elected by voters of 651 parliamentary
constituencies, into which Britain is divided, each with electorate of about
60,000 voters. Each person over 18 has the right to vote, except prisoners,
lords and the mentally ill. The voting is taken by a secret ballot. Each
constituency is represented by one MP. The winner is the candidate who gets more
votes than any other single candidate. The leader of the party with most seats
usually becomes the PM and forms the Government, which can remain in power for
up to five years. The second biggest party becomes the official Opposition, and
its leader forms the Shadow Cabinet. The PM chooses the date of the next
General Election. About a month before the election the PM meets a small group
of close advisers to discuss the date. Then the PM formally asks the Queen to
dissolve the Parliament – all MPs become unemployed, but government officers
continue to function. . Voting takes place on Polling Day (usually a Thursday),
the results are known by the next morning. The leader of the party that got the
majority is invited by the Queen to form a government. The government is
arranged in about 15 departments each with a minister as its head. The PM
chooses about 20 MPs from his or her party to become the Cabinet of Ministers.
Members of the
House of Lords are not elected. About 70 per cent of them are hereditary peers.
The other 30 per cent are life peers, they are appointed by the Queen.
proportional representation system – all political parties, small as well as
large, are represented in the governing body according to the proportion of
votes they receive.
Parties. 3 main parties – the
Labour (Tony Blair), the Conservative (Ian Duncan Smith), the Liberal-Democrats
(Charles Kennedy). Labour – red colour, Conservative – blue, Lib-Dem – orange.
The party system since 17th cent.
of the Lords
function of the HL is to examine and revise bills from the Commons. It also
acts as the final court of appeal. Bill send from the HC may be approved by the
HL (if financial - automatically), they can amend the bill and send it back to
the HC, cannot just reject, can delay for 13 months, after this it becomes a
law (“kill a bill”), but the bill is no longer relevant.
Chamber: throne in the center
with a canopy and a woolsack (source of Britain’s prosperity) where the Lord
Chancellor sits (speaker of the HL). Governmental side – right of the speaker,
opposition – left. Benches – red leather, green line separates government and
opposition (for contrast) + cross benches. The speaker takes part in debates
and votes. If the speaker decides to address as an ordinary – leaves the woolsack.
Labour 409 (a “comfortable” majority), Conservatives 163, Lib-Dem 53, total 659
(+ some smaller parties). Presided over by a speaker, has the right to maintain
the order , elected at the beginning of each parliament session or when the
previous retires or dies; doesn’t speak in debates, doesn’t vote, calls members
to speak, puts the question (to vote).
The Chamber has the same arrangement
– speaker’s chair (instead of the throne and the woolsack). Shadow Cabinet of
the Opposition has the right to elaborate alternative policies .Frontbenchers, backbenchers,
crossbenchers, the visitors’ gallery. The benches are green. Emphasize 2-party
system. The process of debates is adversarial.
The main function
is to make laws by passing Acts of Parliament, as well as to discuss current
Each session begins with the State Opening of the Parliament, if a part has the
majority, the Queen reads the speech. A debate, a vote is taken. If no clear
majority – hung parliament, dangerous situation, can lead to a parliament
crisis. Most of the year – special routine. Proceedings are public, televised,
press admitted, then publish the proceedings on the following day in Hansard (it
was the first man who published). Business, order of business, parliamentary
business; question time – 1 hour, MPs ask Ministers and other MPs questions,
prepared 48 hours, by opposition – to reveal the weakness in the Government.
The main debate: bills are introduced by the Government, Ministers mostly. The
bill is introduced in a form of a motion, any Minister can move something; the
question is open to debate. At the end of the debate the Speaker asks MPs if
they accept a motion, sometimes the matter is decides on the spot. Approved by
a majority, rare – a division is called: aye/no lobbies – vote by walking, a
bell is rung, appoint tellers stay on a/n lobbies, each MP walk to the lobby
and they are counted; have very little time. The bill goes through some stages:
first reading – debated in detail, when is complicated, the House goes into
committee, special committee remains (e.g. the Committee of Defense), others
leave. 3rd time – passed or rejected, if passed –> the HL –>
the Queen for the Royal Assent –> law. Bills are drafted by consultation
with professional bodies. Sometimes the proposals take the form of white paper
(states that the Government wants to know the attitude of public); if wants
public discussion – green paper. The standing committees.
motion (first introduced by Thatcher) – cuts down debate, fix the time is
allocated. Every party has the party whips – like party policeman, press the
members to vote for the Government, all party members vote for. They don’t play
truant, if don’t come – reduction of the salary.
Government and Cabinet
Street – PM and the Cabinet. The White Hall – Her Majesty’s Government, governs
in the name of the Queen. The Queen invites the leader of the party that has
the majority to form a government. The Ministers are almost always the members
of the Commons, also a few – Lords. It is based on a tradition, because in the
Commons the Government is expected to explain its policies. In 19th
century some Governments included members of different parties.
ministers and departments. ~100 Ministers, the central core is the Cabinet - ~20
senior Ministers invited by the PM, they are called the Secretaries of State.
Minister – a junior member of the Cabinet. Lord Chancellor, Secretary of State
for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Foreign Secretary) – Jack Straw; Chancellor
of the Exchequer (Minister of Finance) – Gordon Brown; Home Secretary (Home
Department); Secretary for Defense, for Culture, Media and Sport, Education and
Employment, Social Security, for Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland.
1 collective responsibility (as if they were one person) even if individuals do
not agree. If a Minister has done something wrong, his colleagues have to
disown him/her, will have to resign. 2 PM first among equals. In theory the 2nd
is supposed to encourage balance and freedom for individual ministers, in
practice it can give rise to tension. Insure leadership, allow for each
minister some responsibility and freedom in their field.
meetings are held in private, 1-2 a week, while the Parliament is sitting, or,
less often, during parliamentary recess. The proceedings are confidential,
secretaries take a special oath not to disclose. Because of the great amount of
business, Secretaries have junior Ministers working under them – Ministers of
a political body which administers the decisions of the Ministers. Employed
~600,000 civil servants, expected to be politically impartial, serves any
government, equally loyal to whatever party is in office; if they want to stand
for the Parliament they have to resign first. Centre – the Cabinet Office,
responsibilities – considerable, including the proper running of the whole
the system was reformed.
Types. 45 Unitary authorities,
mostly around the big cities. Now the system of local government has one-tier
authorities, only unitary. 2-tier authorities: county councils (councillor),
subdivided into district / borough councils (mayors). In England – 45 u. c., 34
c. c. and 238 d. / b. c. Local elections – for 4 years, councillors elect
annually, serve on voluntary basis; the council doesn’t have executive powers,
no administrator – basically self-regulating. The Queen’s represented by Lord
Lieutenant of the county, attends on the Queen when she comes to the county,
gives honours and grants on behalf of the crown.
Functions. Responsible for
education, the maintenance of the main roads, social services, welfare, libraries,
fire service, refuse disposal. District councils: housing, urban roads, car
parks, refuse collection, recreation, cemeteries, environmental health. Unitary
councils – combine all these functions. Parish councils – in rural.
1 the council tax – on the owner-occupier or tenant of a dwelling which is
their sole or main residence. Calculate: depending on evaluation of the market
price of the dwelling. Standard Band D, divide dwellings into groups. 2
non-domestic rate – on other kinds of property; 3 government grants; 4 income
from fees and charges for services.
London. 32 borough councils. The
London mayor – Ken Livingston. Greater London authority (GLA) covers the area of
32 boroughs and the City of London. The Corporation of London: the Lord-Mayor –
nominated annually by the City Guilds, 24 Aldermen, 130 councillors.
Wales. Only unitary authorities
(22). Besides – devolution – the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff for 4
years, 60 members and presiding officer. Can introduce secondary legislation,
on the basis of acts passed by the Parliament in Westminster, cannot raise or
lower income tax. The Welsh Cabinet – 1st Secretary, secretaries for
minor matters (~ economic development, education, health, etc.). Have measure
of independence nowadays.
Scotland. 29 unitary authorities,
for 3 years, elected. + 3 island councils. Have greater independence than Wales.
The Scottish Parliament, in Edinburgh, since 1999, 128 members. Has the right
to introduce primary legislation and raise / lower income tax by up to 3p in
the pound. The Scottish Executive – the government, for education, health, law
and order, headed by the 1st Minister. Own notes – Scottish pound.
Ireland: 26 district councils elected for 4 years.
of law and order
Constitution is not codified in any formal document. The legislative branch – the HL,
the HC, the Queen; the Cabinet and the PM – executive; they are combined by the
Queen. In fact the Parliament is controlled by the executive, as all the bills
pass to the Parliament by the majority party, also it is in the Parliament.
Judicial system is represented by Courts, the HL is the main one. So there is
practically no separation of powers. The majority party has the real power in
the country. There is no constitutional court, the system provides for no
checks and balances.
system of England and Wales are separated of these of Scotland and Northern
Supreme authority – the HL (supreme courts). The Ultimate Court of Appeal – Law
Lords. Under the HL – Supreme Court of Judicature (rather abstract, no single
body), including the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice (responsible
for civil cases), the Crown Court (for criminal cases). The High Court of
Justice: 3 divisions – the Chancery Division (financial matters: bankruptcy,
interpretation of transactions and wills), the Queen’s Bench Division (for
commercial law: breach of contracts, serious personal injury), the Family
Division (adoption, divorce, etc.). Claimant/plaintiff <–> defendant.
Civil cases: most are minor, settled
in Small Claims Court (involving sum of money < £5,000), by a district
judge, if he decides that you are right can award costs and usually
compensation / damages. The more serious matter (e.g. car) – to the County court
(circuit judge – travels to the place). You’d be represented by a solicitor or
a barrister, if the case is serious (e.g. road accident and somebody was badly
injured). If you are dissatisfied – to the Court of Appeal (Civil Division).
Prosecution Service, headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions, works under
the guidance of the Attorney-General. Crown Prosecution Service sends
barristers and solicitors.
3 types of
offences: 1) summary offences (95%) – e.g. motoring offences, dealt with in
Magistrates’ courts (Justice of the Peace) – 3 people, ordinary citizens,
chosen by the community, appointed by the Lord Chancellor on recommendations by
local groups; unpaid, not professional lawyers (lay magistrates), without any
jury – so advised on points of law and procedure by a special legally qualified
clerk. Magistrates’ court can sentence to less than 6 month imprisonment or a
fine of less than £5,000, if more serious – send to the Crown Court. 2) Offence
triable either way (e.g. car theft) – choice belongs to the defendant, decides
either should be heard by lay magistrates or the Crown Court. 3) Indictable
offences (e.g. robbery, at the point of the gun or knife) – only in the Crown
Court, presided by High Court Judges (full-time circuit judges) with a jury of
12 people (jurors). Crown Courts also hear the cases from Magistrates. If
dissatisfied – to the Court of Appeal (the Criminal Division). Verdict is
reached by the jury, after they have heard. Jury – local people (constitutional
duty). The judge sits in the court room, makes sure that the trial is properly
conducted. Counsel for prosecution, for Defense. The judge ~ guides, helps the
jury to reach the verdict. Person is presumed to be innocent unless the
prosecution can prove guilt above all reasonable doubt. Convicted, acquitted,
Offences: murder, manslaughter,
rape, assault, assault and battery, arson, robbery, burglary, theft, mugging,
shoplifting, kidnapping, embezzlement, bribery, forgery, perjury, slander, libel,
blackmail, abuse of power/confidence, disorderly conduct, speeding.
Punishment: fine, imprisonment,
community service, probation (report to a special probation officer), remand in
custody, remand on bail, to grant, deny bail, release on parole; death penalty
abolished in 1969. The age of criminal responsibility 10 years. For children –
Juvenile Court (youth court), 15 years peak age: allow to live within the
family, under special supervision, take into local authority care (in a
community home), attend special school, live with foster parents, community
Lawyers. Solicitors – the lower
category, may deal with public, barristers – cannot approach public. A person
–> solicitor –> barrister – speaks in court. Solicitor speaks in the
Magistrates’ Courts. Law society – for solicitors, the Bar – for barristers.
Queen’s Counsels (QC) – in important cases. No special training for judges,
Lord Chancellor decides who is to be a judge, chooses barristers.
class system of modern Britain: the expansion of the middle class, class
mobility, the upper classes, the emergence of a new underclass, the main causes
of this, the British notion of professional classes, the perception of class
system and class conflict in modern society
class 1%, upper middle 3%, middle 16%, lower middle 25%, skilled working 25%,
unskilled working 17%, underclass 13%. A market feature of last 3 decades of 20th
century – major expansion of the middle class. In 1900 75% of manual workers,
in 1991 – 36%. 2mln jobs created in the professional and managerial fields,
works became more skilled and the service sector grew considerably; average
income grew, so nowadays much of the working class population can afford a
middle class life style. Thatcher made 2/3 of population house-owners by
selling council houses for give-away prices, overwhelming majority have a bank
account or a building society account; share-holders due to the privatization
of state companies in 1980’s. Traditionally working at a plant was considered
working class, but essentially middle class – a lot of mobility between middle,
lower middle and working classes. Least mobility in upper class, in underclass
– another result of Thatcher’s policies (abolished full-employment). 1% own ¼
of the nation’s wealth; inheritance, spread around the family to minimize the
effect of taxation. Young people – professionals, like civil servants, lawyers,
armed forced – during Thatcher’s period, a lot of them moved from the public
service to the private sector, because of salaries. In 1964 people were asked
if there was class struggle – 48% “yes”, in 1995 – 81%.
Historic country houses as part of British national heritage: the development
of attitudes from the mid-19th century to the present day. The role of the main
aristocratic families, the National Trust and the government in the
preservation of the country houses
Until early 19th
century – private houses of the aristocracy. Their role as national heritage
began then. The Victorian idea – Tudor and Jacobean houses, contrasted to the
18the century houses which considered not-English, cosmopolitan.
A writer Nash
published a book about them, everybody could see. Started traveling a lot, one
of the most popular pastimes, + railways (1825), all classes excluding working
classes. Few owners needed financial contribution, so no fee (only in 3-4
half of the 19th century – change, friendly attitude broken, general
public began to be called philistines (commerce, urbanization, comforts).
Middle class – cosmopolitan resorts (Nice, Biarritz – tone was set by Edward,
Victoria’s son). In European countries – opposite. In Jan 1895 – a charitable
trust was set up, the National Trust (1st chairman – Duke of
Westminster). Accepted gifts from people who cared, bought houses by public
subscription, membership fees. Bought only ~60 houses. The second group of
people – owners themselves – barbarians. Didn’t want to maintain. Deep
agriculture depression, prices of land fell, grain prices fell, => economic
and political power suffered severe blows, land and money more important than
houses and contents, large houses were very expensive to maintain – found
buyers, or redecorated, destroying historical features. In 1894 – death duty
introduced, this ruined many aristocratic families. The third group – small,
almost marginal – aesthetes, criticized philistines and barbarians.
Between the WW
– public valuation continued to deteriorate, visiting stopped, closed,
abandoned or demolished. Urbanization of the country – landowners began to sell
land (death duty – 50%), ~ 1/5 of landowners fell out of the class. While they
could sell lands, nobody needed houses, they could be bough “for a song”. Lots
demolished, lots sold to various institutions, like public schools, colleges,
After WWII –
change, deal with the government (schools, or store houses for national art
collections); if not – to accommodate troops. Also – once is taken – no death
duty. Everybody felt there was no future for the country houses life, lots
demolished, sold, needed for schools, hospitals.
period of growing land prices, many landowners became multimillionaires. Then a
group was formed “heritage in danger”. Tax exemption for important works of
art, buildings, stretches of land. Owners were allowed to put their property in
“maintenance funds” – controlled by the family, but treated as public bodies.
Apply for maintenance grants – historic building council.
Nowadays – 1:
privately owned houses – HHA (historic houses association), in best condition.
2: owned by the National Trust (membership fee, but visiting free). 3: owned by
the Government, 1984 English heritage set up, organization funded by the
Government, shells – nothing inside, or ruins. There is Secretary in the
Cabinet for English Heritage. Besides buying – grants export license to take it
out of the country, administers Historic Buildings Council grants. 4:
institutional use, e.g. Warwick Castle – Mme Tussaud’s.
the invaders who came to the British Isles before the Norman Conquest.
The Celts (700 BC), the Romans (55, 54 BC Caesar; 44, 77 AD Agricola),
the Scotts from Ireland, the Picts from far north, the Anglo-Saxons (6th
century), the Vikings (Danes, Norwegians, Swedes)
were the Druids?
The ancient Celtic priests and teachers, religious leaders, before
is Hadrian's Wall?
A stone wall which the Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered to be built across
the north of England in 122 AD from the east coast to the west, in order to defend
Roman Britain from attack by northern tribes. Every 15 miles – fort. In
do the words "Danelaw" and "Danegeld" stand for?
Area conquered by the Danes, money (ransom) paid to the invaders.
do you know about the battle of Hastings?
14 Oct 1066, the Norman King William the Conqueror defeated the army of
the English King Harold.
the history of religious on the British Isles up to the final conversion to
Druids, paganism, –> pagan Romans, eradicated druids, –> 391
Theodosius ordered the closure of all pagan temples, –> 597 Pope Gregory
sent mission to convert Anglo-Saxons, St. Augustine – missionary; monasteries,
churches, by 8th century Christianized.
changes did the Romans bring to Britain?
Introduction of towns, baths in each, aqueducts, drainage, sewage, walls
against invasions, armed camps, villas, introduces some vegetables and fruits.
was England part of a Scandinavian Empire? The Angevin Empire?
11th cent. 1154 - end of the 14th century.
on the origin of names like Gloucester, Worcester, Essex, Wednesday, Thursday,
Gloucester, Worcester – “castra” meaning the armed camp (lat.), Essex –
east Saxons, Thursday – Vikings’ strongest god of thunder Thor, Friday – Freya’s
languages of Britain are of Celtic origin?
Gaelic, Erse (Scottish and Irish), Welsh, Irish.
historical significance does the Bayeux Tapestry have?
A tapestry (large piece of heavy woven cloth) 70m long, made in Bayeux
(France) in 11th-12th centuries, whose pictures tell the
story of the Norman Conquest.
was Westminster Abbey built? Rebuilt?
11th century, 13th century.
what document is the story of the Viking invasion told?
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The council of the nobility and top clergy in 10th century.
was the capital of Anglo-Saxon and early Norman England?
was the royal household expected to be financed in the medieval times? When did
this practice end?
The king was believed to be the richest landowner, expected to live off
his own. Then system of taxation – the knights were encouraged to stay in their
manors and improve, pay taxes, rather than serve the king at the court. Ended
when the Civil List was introduced, money was given by the Parliament.
was trial by jury introduced? How did it work?
12th century, jurors were the witnesses themselves. Nobody
could be convicted unless jurors swore that there was the case against
what war was the battle of Crecy fought? What was its result?
The Hundred Years War. 1356. Prince of Wales (Black Prince) defeated the
document was signed at Runneymede? In what year? What were its provisions?
Magna Charta, 1215. ~ 1st English constitution, lay down the
foundation of the government, 60 articles. Most important – no free man was to
be arrested, imprisoned except by the law of land (presumption of innocence);
no tax should be introduced without the approval of thee Council. Privileges to
boroughs – charted town, guaranteed freedom of cities.
are the crusades?
8 wars led by Christian European kings in the 11th, 12th
and 13th centuries to get control of Palestine from the Muslims,
since both sides believed that Palestine was a holy land in their religion.
and when did Parliament emerge in England?
13th century – 1265. Great councils more and more often,
representatives from shires, towns came to meetings. In 1350 divided into HL
was the feudal system organized under William the Conqueror?
Brought 170 tenants-in-chief, 5,000 knights. The honour (land) – to
tenants-in-chief, manors – to knights. Ruling class – tenants, knights (gentry
class), bishops (appointed by the King). William gave orders to tenants, they
to knights. Common people belonged to the knights.
did the Hundred Years' War start? How did it end?
1337-1453. Attempt to reclaim the Angevin Empire, tried to keep control
of lands in France. The French won and forced the English to leave France.
is the Domesday Book?
The record of all the lands in England, showing their size, value,
ownership, etc., made in 1086 on the orders of William the Conqueror.
do you know about Thomas Becket?
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who was killed by Henry II’s soldiers
(1170) in Canterbury Cathedral (“Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?”).
Becket was his friend. He was appointed Lord Chancellor, then became the
Archbishop and began to claim estates from the noble people as being Church
property. Then he declared that no power, but himself should appoint a priest
to any church in England. Henry II tried to reduce the power of the Church.
They quarreled, then Becket resigned and changed lifestyle to humility and
self-denial, went to France for 6 years.
are the royal regalia?
Ceremonial clothes and decorations. Crown, scepter, orb, + sword of
An English Cardinal, and politician who was rich and powerful, but lost
power after failing to persuade the Pope to allow Henry VIII to divorce
Catherine of Aragon. Accused of high treason, died just in time.
and how were the feudal system and the power of the medieval nobility broken?
15th century. Continuous fighting among the noble people, the
Wars of the Roses (civil war), physically wiped out, and common people stayed
away from fighting. Battle of Bosworth, 1485 – end of medieval England.
character in English history was called the King-maker? Why?
During the Wars of the Roses, Earl of Warwick, decided to interfere, and
Edward IV became the king with his help.
do you know about Thomas More?
An English politician and writer, he was the King’s adviser, Lord
Chancellor, but when he opposed the King’s divorce and refused to accept him as
the head of the Church of England, was put in prison and beheaded.
the main Tudor kings. What was the success of the Tudor rule based on?
Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I. Absolute monarchy,
set fashions in every field of public life, felt public opinion, gave rise to a
new elite – the gentry, trade flourished, avoided expensive wars.
did the Church of England emerge?
In 1527 Henry VIII wanted to remarry (Catherine of Aragon –> Anne
Boleyn), the Pope didn’t acknowledge his divorce (was influenced by the Spanish
king, Catherine’s nephew), in 1533 broke off with Vatican, announced himself a
supreme head of the Church of England.
is Thomas Cranmer? What is he best remembered for?
The Archbishop of Canterbury, first after the creation of C of E, one of
the leaders of Reformation. Granted the King his divorce.
causes, two main periods and the results of the Wars of the Roses.
Dynastic crisis, Plantagenets perished, the rivalry between House of
Lancasters and House of Yorks led to the civil war (1455-1485). The Battle of
St. Albans (1455) – Richard of York (won) versus Henry VI. Queen Margaret
(1960) – Lancaster. Edward IV (York). Richard III. 1485 - Henry VII Tudor. The
Battle of Bosworth. End of medieval England, rise of new elite, Tudors came to
is William Cecil?
Elizabeth’s adviser, secretary. She had a good talent in choosing
advisers in ruling. Cecils were commoners, but she made him Lord Burleigh.
do you know about the dissolution of monasteries? Its social consequences.
In the beginning of 1530s in England were about 800 catholic monasteries.
1536-1540 all the monasteries were closed, the lands and belongings passed to
the king’s treasury. Then the king sold the lands to gentry, it created a huge
landowning class, which had political influence until the 19th
did the interior of and service in the English church change as a result of the
establishment of the Church of England?
1549 – Book of Common Prayer, retained much of Catholic practice,
including mass. More radical (1552) – Catholic mass disappeared, introduced
penalty. 1559 – Act of Uniformity. Service of the Holly Communion replaced the
mass, Morning Prayer said in English, psalm singing, vicar delivered sermon
from the pulpit. Before appealed to the eye, now to the ear. Appearance of
churches changed – interior almost bare, Royal Arms instead of the image of
Jesus Christ, relics, altar, pyx gone, walls whitewashed, no paintings,
clergymen wore surplice. Abolition of church music.
character in English history is called "Bloody Mary"? Why?
Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Wanted to convert
the country to Catholicism. Lots of execution (Thomas Cranmer), reign was
almost a disaster, unsuccessful war with France.
what document is the doctrine of the Anglican Church contained? When was the
final version of it adopted? How did the doctrine develop from Henry VIII to
42 Articles of Faith 1552 by Cranmer. In 1562 – modified to 39, and in
1571 was imposed by the Parliament as the doctrine of C of E – till nowadays.
More radical but proved to be the golden mean, meant different for different
does Elizabethan religious settlement imply?
Protestants wanted to go further, to Calvinism, Catholics to preserve
Catholicism. She was a protestant, but not religious, didn’t care much;
motivated by political reasons had to come back to the C of E. In 1559 – Act of
Supremacy (finally abolished foreign interference in English ecclesiastical
affairs). Act of Uniformity (1559). She wanted moderate Protestantism, but
majority wanted more radical form. Under pressure in 1552 issued the 2nd
Prayer Book, which was more radical than she wanted.
versus Mary Stuart.
Mary was the Queen of Scotland (Elizabeth’s cousin). She has been married
to the Dauphin, the heir of the French king. As the Roman Church never
recognized the marriage (Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn), she claimed the English
Crown. Mary was accused of murder of her second husband and was imprisoned, signed
her abdication, then managed to escape to England. Elizabeth didn’t want Mary
to be executed. Mary spent in prison 19 years, then executed for high treason.
foreign policies and their effect on the treasury.
England was not a great power, European countries dominated. England
secretly did harm to them (pirates – got a lot of money to the treasury, so she
didn’t punish them), and aided the Netherlands against Spain. Philip II, the
Spanish King and “bloody” Mary’s husband, also supporting Mary Stuart –
conflicted with Elizabeth. Sent fleet to defeat England, but England won the
Invincible Armada and became the Mistress of the Seas. Financial problems,
Elizabeth considered to be very miserly.
main causes of the conflict between King and Parliament in the mid-17th
2 main problems when Stuarts replaced Tudors – religious and financial.
Lack of money in the treasury, the Parliament refused to introduce any ordinary
taxation. James I got rid of the Parliament. Also James stated that Puritanism
in his country couldn’t be tolerated.
what war was the battle of Naseby fought?
14th June 1645. The First Civil War. The first defeat of royalists.
the Stuart kings and queens.
James I, Charles I. After Restoration - Charles II, James II, Mary II,
William III, Queen Anne.
do you know about Guy Fawkes?
The Gunpowder Plot. 5th November 1605. He wanted to blow up the
Parliament, when the King, the Lords and the Commons should be there. The Plot
was disclosed, Fawkes imprisoned, found guilty, executed.
event is commonly referred to as Regicide? How popular and lawful was it?
The execution of Charles I. People considered this to be a horrible event
because they believed him to be lord-anointed. He was convicted not by the
court of law but by a legislative assembly.
what circumstances was it possible for English kings to rule without Parliament?
What kings did it? When was this finally stopped?
James I got rid of the Parliament. Charles I also. When Charles I had to
summon the Parliament because he needed money badly (Scotts invaded the country
and demanded money, to prevent from active war) – summoned the Long Parliament.
It started passing laws – no dissolution of the Parliament without its consent,
no type of taxation without its consent, king able to summon the Parliament
when wanted, but at least in 3 years.
events took place in England between 1642 and 1649?
In 1642 the King went to the North to assemble the army to fight with the
Parliament. Nobody wanted the war but the chance for compromise was lost,
Charles refused to abolish the royal prerogatives, so the war was inevitable.
The Parliament created the “New Model Army” which defeated the Royal Army.
Charles was captured but fled to the Isle of Wight, then arrested, put on
trial, executed (1649).
period is called the Personal Rule? How did it end?
1629-1640, Charles I, had problems with money, wanted to avoid wars, to
raise money by royal prerogatives, granted new monopolies, remembered old
taxes, conflicted with the Parliament and finally he didn’t summon. Peace with
France and Spain, commercial prosperity. Ended with 2 civil wars and execution.
are Cavaliers and Roundheads?
Cavaliers were the people, mostly nobility, who supported the King during
the English Civil War. Roundheads, mostly puritans, gentry, – supported the
do you know about Inigo Jones?
A British architect, who was the partner of Charles I (who was the patron
of arts). Designed many important buildings, esp. in London. He was the first
person to introduce the Italian Palladian style. Also designed scenery for the
are the events of 1642 - 1649 sometimes referred to as the Puritan revolution?
What were its results?
Because the Parliament consisted mainly of puritans. They criticized the
C of E, were persecuted for this, they wanted to get rid of all remains of
Catholicism. Results – extreme puritans did away with the C of E and set new
political system, the Republic.
period in English history do we call the Protectorate?
The period after Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Parliament and proclaimed
the Protectorate, assuming the title of Lord-Protector. 5 years (1653-1658).
Then his son Richard, till 1659.
and between what countries was the War for the Spanish Succession fought? What
were its results?
In 1701-1713, England (+ Holland), France and Spain – for the Spanish
throne after the Spanish King’ death. England won, got Minorca, Gibraltar,
Newfoundland. French expansion stopped.
are the events of 1689 called either the Glorious or the Unexpected revolution?
What were the consequences?
James II conflicted with the Parliament, the 2 parties decided to remove
James and invite his daughter with her husband William of Orange. James fled to
France, people didn’t object. No blood, no opposition, no battles. Absolutism
in England came to its end, England became limited monarchy.
does the term "Restoration" stand for?
No parliament, no stability, and at last the royalists invited Charles II
(Charles I’s son) to become the King in 1660.
role did the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough play in English history?
John Churchill for his victories in the War for the Spanish Succession
(the battle of Blenheim) got the title of Duke of Marlborough, was granted the
land. His wife Sarah Jennings was the Queen’s favourite.
are the Dissenters?
Members of one of the protestant groups that separated from the C of E,
refused to accept the doctrine of the established church.
did the party system emerge? What were the first parties, how did the system
change with years?
1670’s. first there were two parties – Tory (court party that supported
the King) and Whigs (who supported the Parliament – country / gentry, wanted
did the King become king-in-Parliament? What did it mean?
1694, William of Orange, III. He ruled under certain conditions: accepted
the Bill of Rights (no standing army, no laws without parliament’s consent),
the Act of Settlement (no catholic succeed). Didn’t rule on his own, but a part
of the Parliament.
was the Civil List first introduced?
In William of Orange’s reign, 1698. The Parliament started giving money
for keeping king’s household, so that he couldn’t dissolve it.
are the Hanovers?
After the Queen Ann’s death there was a change of dynasty, because she
didn’t have children. George I was from German, but James I’s remote relative.
and when did the office of the Prime Minister originate? What did the office
imply? Who was the first PM?
1720’s. The first PM was Robert Walpole, he became the King’s
representative in the HC.
were the main periods of the reign of George III?
The first period 1760-1789, believed in an absolute monarchy, was an
idealistic politician. When the colonies in America got independence, the Whigs
returned to power. Also after the French Revolution, England felt that it was a
great threat. After the War with Napoleon, the victory, he got national
respect. The monarchy began to change.
are the Black Prince, Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Prince of Wales?
The Black Prince was the Prince of Wales, during the Hundred Years War he
defeated the French. Bonnie Prince Charlie – the grandson of James II, believed
to have the right to be the king instead of George II. The Prince of Wales is
the eldest son of the King / Queen, started when Wales joined England in Edward
period is called "the rule of the elite"? How did the political
system work? When and why did it end?
The period of Whigs’ ruling, during the reign of George I and II, the
country was effectively controlled by the ministers (Robert Walpole – the
head). It ended with the accession of George III (who was brought up in
England); he subjugated the Parliament.
event is called "the Boston Tea Party"?
A protest in Boston in 1773 against the British tax on tea, when tea was
thrown from the ship into the water in the Boston Harbour. This is considered
to be the event that started the American Revolutionary War.
period is referred to as Regency? Why was it necessary?
The period 1811-1820 when the country was ruled by the Prince Regent
(George IV), because the King himself was mentally ill.
was the first British Empire created? When did it end?
Created after the victory in the War for the Spanish Succession. It ended
in 1783 when the colonies in America became independent.
is William Pitt the Younger? What role did he play?
He was the head of the fraction of the Whig Party, George III preferred
him, became the PM – great stability, support of both King and the Parliament.
were the heroes of the wars against Napoleon?
Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon several times, the battle of Trafalgar,
he was fatally wounded; Duke of Wellington, defeated Napoleon in the battle of
Waterloo in 1815.
did the expression "to meet one's Waterloo" originate?
Napoleon was finally defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
changes in the nature of monarchy and the ruling elite in the early 19th
The Monarchy became the symbol of the nation’s unity. After the war with
Napoleon. Great proud. The ruling elite underwent great change. People
deserving respect – not only birth and property, but industry and morality. A
view that wealth and rank meant duty, private morality. Political power based
on birth and property.
is the Great Reform Bill? Why was it necessary and what were its main
It was a bill which gave a voting right to more social groups and big
cities were now represented in the Parliament. Necessary – because industrial
cities emerged and they had no representatives.
were the main features of Victorian society and government?
The country was effectively ruled by the PMs, who were elected from the
party that got the majority in the Parliament. 2nd Reform Bill in
1867 (aristocratic rule declined), electorate doubled, secret ballot
introduced. Society: class division formed but no confrontation. Financial
independence, respectability, philanthropy, hard work, earnestness. Police
force created, public health, education for the lower classes. Free unregulated
extension of franchise after the Great Reform Act of 1832, its consequences.
Every 5th received a vote. Redistribution of seats. Now big
cities were represented, property qualification for candidates. Social
consequence – tied the middle class to the aristocrats.
was the role of Prince Albert in British history?
He was the Prince-Consort, was not fit for business, but had good
influence on the young queen. He was interested in arts, music, science and
industry, planned and organized the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many buildings
are named after him.
were the two main parties in the Victorian age and who were their most
Tory –> Conservatives (Disraeli), Whigs –> Liberal (Gladstone).
did government social policy originate? What areas did it cover?
Social reforms in Victorian reign – public health, education for all
children, state undertook the duty to provide schools, school attendance became
compulsory, elementary education free.
is the Boer War?
The war in South Africa against 2 Boer republics (Transvaal and Orange
Free State), made them a part of the British Empire. Huge loss of life, Britain
became unpopular in Europe.
period do we call Edwardian? What were its distinctive features?
The reign of Edward VII. Society became cosmopolitan, new wealth was
added to the old wealth of great landowning families (from Victorian time).
Appearance of the Labour Party, social reforms. Crisis, suffragette movement.
Poverty and unemployment. Irish question.
do you know about the People's Budget?
Was introduced by David Lloyd George. It was designed to pay the costs of
social welfare and naval rearmament. But the Lords rejected the project in
were the effects of WWI on British society?
Had very important consequences, affected everyone, traumatized the whole
generation, nothing was the same after it. It had provided the occasion for
massive governmental experiments in economic enterprise, in insurance. It was
the impulse for social and economical change. Rising unemployment. Rise of
Labour Party and decline of Liberals. Very extensive program of social reforms
– Liberals failed to respond.
rise and fall of the Second British Empire.
1850 the 2nd British Empire, India added, exceeded the 1st. During the
period from 1940 to 1980 years more than 40 British colonies became
independent. Remained friendly with Britain, most of them –> the
did government economic policy begin?
After the WWI, the Government started defending the home market by
introducing protectionist tariffs.
did the Labour party emerge? How did it later change the party system? The
changes in the Labour programme at the end of the 20th century, their main
Emerged in 1906. In 1920’s rose and replaced the Liberal Party. Was
traditionally the socialist party, but in 1980-90’s changed and move towards
the political center (New Labour).
were the main effects of WWII?
The economy declined, there was nothing to export, no money for import.
Britain was effectively a totalitarian state, the Government had unlimited
power, rationing introduced, luxuries had 100% tax on them, everyone of
fighting age was conscripted, servants disappeared. Defeat of Conservatives and
victory of the Labour Party.
role did Mrs. Simpson, a divorced American, play in English history?
Wallis Simpson, had a relationship with Edward VIII. Because she had
already been married twice before, Edward was not allowed to marry her. Then he
decided to abdicate, she became the Duchess of Windsor.
is a Welfare state? When was it created? What does the term "Welfare"
State with a system of social help provided by the state, giving money to
people who are poor or unemployed, providing medical care. 1945-51. The
department of social security.
is meant by the "era of consensus"?
is Affluent Society?
Wealthy society, which was created by expansion of the middle class. In
1990’s the society was defined by a prosperity that involved the majority of
events are sometimes referred to as "The Winter of Discontent"?
The winter of 1978-79 when many workers refused to work in protest
against the Labour government’s idea on limiting pay rises. The Labour party
lost power after this.
events are called "The Battle of Britain"?
The fights between German and Britain aircraft during the summer and
autumn of 1940, when British aircraft tried to prevent German aircraft from
bombing British cities. The bombing was stopped at the end of 1940 and it was
considered as a great victory. Main result – prevented from invasion.
was Thatcher's period in office called a revolution? What did she mean when she
proclaimed a return to Victorian values?
Changed a lot, reduced taxes, took away power from trade unions, started
the programme of privatization, and created huge middle class. Free market.
Everybody should work hard, be earnest, thrifty, and independent.