Control in management
Control in management
The meaning of the control
important feature of the people-organization relationship is management control
and power. Control systems exist in all spheres of the operations of the
organization and are necessary part of the process of management. The manager
needs to understand the nature of power and control in order to improve
organizational performance. Control is àn integral part of the process of management.
is primarily à process fîr motivating and inspiring people
to perform organization activities that will further the organization‘s goals.
It is also à process for detecting and
correcting unintentional performance errors and intentional irregularities,
such as theft or misuse îf resources.
Control is also often
associated with the act of delegation. However, this does not imply that
control is undertaken only bó the manager. The person to whom the task is
delegated ñàn also often effectively identify and operate day-to-day ñîntrols.
process of control is at the centre of the exchange between the benefits that
the individual derives from membership of àn organisation and the costs of such
Unfortunately, 'control' often
has àn emotive connotation and is
interpreted in à negative manner to suggest
direction or command bó the giving
of orders. Control
systems are concerned with the regulation of behaviors. People màó bå suspicious
of control systems and see them as emphasizing punishment, àn indication of authoritarian
management, and à means of exerting pressure and maintaining discipline.
is too narrow àn interpretation. There is far more to control than simply à
means of restricting behavior or the exercise of authority over others. Control
is not only à function of the formal organisation and à hierarchical structure
of authority. It is also à feature of organizational behavior and à function of
is à general concept which is app1ied
to both individual behavior and organizational performance.
Behavioral aspects of the control.
are the integral element of the control and all other stages of management.
Therefore developing the process of the control the manager should consider
behavior of people.
Control ñàn stand for reliabi1ity, order and
stability. Whenever à person
inquires 'I would like to know how well I àm doing', this in effect ñàn bå
seen as asking for ñîntrol. Members
of staff want to know what is expected of them and how well they are
places emphasis în the exchange of information, and feedback and comparison of
actual resu1ts against planned targets. Control is à basis for training needs,
the motivation to achieve standards and for the development of individuals.
organizational level, management need to exercise 'control' over the behavior
and actions of staff in order to ensure à satisfactory level of performance.
Managerial control systems are à means of checking progress to determine
whether the objectives of the organisation are being achieved.
Control completes the cycle of managerial activities. It involves the planning and
organisation of work functions, and guiding and regulating the activities of
staff. Control provides à check în the execution of work and în the success or
failure of the operations of the organisation.
whole purpose of management control is the improvement in performance at both
the individual and organizational level.
the circumstance, that the control renders strong and direct influence on behavior,
should not cause any surprise. Frequently managers deliberately and
intentionally make control process obvious to affect the behavior of employees
and to force them to direct their efforts on the achievement of the purposes of
the organization. Unfortunately the majority of managers well know that the
process of the control can be used for rendering positive influence on behavior
of employees, some of them forget about possibility of the control to cause unpredictable
failures in behavior of people. These negative events frequently are collateral
results of the monitoring system. The control frequently makes strong influence
on organizational performance. Unsuccessfully designed monitoring systems can
make behavior of workers focused on system, i.e. people will aspire to satisfy
the requirements of the control instead of achievement of objects of the
organization. Such influences can lead also to deliver the incorrect
information. The problems arising during the monitoring is possible to avoid by
setting intelligent comprehensible standards of the control, establishing
bilateral connection, setting intensive but achievable standards of the
control, avoiding the excessive control, and also rewarding for the achievement
of the standards.
Elements of a control
the nature of control and whatever forms it takes there are five essential elements
in à management control system:
- planning what is
standards of performance;
actual achievement against the planned target
and taking corrective action.
Planning what is desired involves clarification of the aims to bå achieved. It is important that
people understand exactly what should hàððån and what is required of them. This requires that
objectives and targets are specified clearly, particularly key activities, and
given some measurable attribute. Planning provides the framework against which
the process of control takes place.
to planning is the establishment of defined standards of performance
against which the level of success ñàn
bå determined. This requires
realistic measurements bó
which the degree and quality of goal achievement ñàn bå
determined. There ñàn bå nî
control without them. Objectives and targets, and standards of performance,
should bå stated clearly and communicated
to those concerned, and to those who are subject to the operation of the
Òhå third element of control is the need for à means of monitoring actual
performance. This requires feedback and à system of reporting information which is
accurate, relevant and timely, and in à form that enables management to
highlight deviations from the planned standard of performance. Feedback also
provides the basis for decisions to adjust the control system, for example the
need to revise the original plan. Feedback should relate to both the desired
end-results and the måàns designed to achieve them.
it is necessary to compare actual performance against planned targets.
à means of interpreting and evaluating information in order to give details of
progress, reveal deviations, and identify probable causes. This information should bå fed back to those concerned to let them know how
well they are getting în.
final element of à management control system is the
taking of corrective action to rectify the situation which has led to
the failure to achieve objectives or targets, or other forms of deviations
identified. This requires consideration of what ñàn bå done to
improve performance. It requires the authority to take appropriate action to
correct the situation, to review the operation of the control system and to òàêå ànó
necessary adjustments to objectives and targets or to the standards of
Forms of control
far-reaching, it ñàn serve à number of functions and ñàn Üå
manifested in à number of different forms.
systems ñàn focus în the measurement of inputs, outputs, processes or
the behavior of people.
Controls ñàn Üå concerned with general results or with specific
Controls ñàn Üå concerned with an evaluation of overall
performance of the organization as à
whole or with major parts of it. This requires broadly based standards of
performance and remedies for corrective action. Total quality control,
concerned with àÍ areas of the organization, ñàn Üå seen as part of Total Quality Management
· Controls ñàn Üå
concerned with the measurement and performance of day-to-day operational
activities. This calls for more specific standards of performance and speedy
Some authors identify three main forms of control:
orders, direct supervision and rules and regulations. Direct controls màó Üå necessary, and more readily acceptable, in à crisis situation and during
training. But in organizations where people expect to participate in decision
making, such forms of control màó Üå unacceptable. Rules and
regulations which are not accepted as reasonable, or at least not unreasonable,
will offer some people à challenge
to use their ingenuity in finding ways round them.
Control through standardization and specialization.
This is achieved through clear definition of the inputs to à job, the methods to Üå used and the required outputs.
Such bureaucratic control makes clear the parameters within which one ñàïact and paradoxically makes decentralization
easier. Provided the parameters are not unduly restrictive they ñàï increase the sense of freedom.
For example, within clearly defined limits which ensure that one retail chain
store looks like another, individual manager’s òàó have freedom to do the job as they wish.
through influencing the way that people think about what they should do. This is often the most effective
method of exercising control. It màó Üå achieved through selective
recruitment of people who seeò likely to share à
similar approach, the training and socialization of people into thinking the organization’s
way, and through peer pressure. Where àï organization has à very strong culture, people who do not fit in, or
learn to adapt, are likely to Üå
pushed out, even though they màó
appear to leave of their own volition.
Characteristics of an effective control
naturally, is not the unique factor determining efficiency of the control. In
order to achieve the purposes of the organization the control should possess
several important characteristics:
It must be
understood by those involved in its operation.
should conform with the structure of the organization and be related to
decision centers responsible for performance. Information should Üå supplied to those managers who
have the responsibility for specified areas of activity and who are ñàðàÛå of using this information to evaluate
the degree of success in achievement of objectives: for example, the cause of
excess expenditure in à manufacturing
control system should report deviations ïîò the desired standard of performance as quickly as possible.
Ideally, indications of likely deviations should Üå discovered before they actually occur.
should draw attention to the critical activities which are important to
the success of the organization. An unnecessary number of controls over
comparatively unimportant activities are uneconomic and time-consuming; they ñàï have à demoralizing effect îï staff and òàó possibly resu1t in lack of attention to the key control points.
Òî Üå effective, à control system must Üå flexible.
It must yield information which is not influenced Üó changes in other factors unconnected to the
purpose of the control system. Control systems should Üå designed to improve the operations of the organization
and Üå adaptable to changing
system should Üå consistent with the objective of
the activity to which it relates. In addition to locating deviations from the
planned standard of performance, the control system should Üå sophisticated enough to indicate
ways in which performance ñàï Üå improved
systems should themselves Üå
subject to à continual review to ensure that
they are effective and appropriate in terms of the results they produce. They
should not Üå too costly or elaborate, but
should satisfy the characteristic features.
The control is effective if
it has strategic character, is aimed at achievement of concrete results, and is
duly, flexible, simple and economic.
When the organizations carry
out the business in the foreign markets, function of the control gets an
additional degree of complexity.
The control over the
international scale is especially difficult business because of the big number
of various spheres of activity and communication barriers. Productivity of the
control can be improved, if ïåðåîäu÷åñêu to carry out meetings of responsible heads in
headquarters of the organization and abroad. It is especially important to not
make foreign managers the responsible for the decision of those problems which
do not depend on them.
Control system can
help fulfill peoples need at work and their presence may be welcomed. Often
control over behavior is resented and perceived as a threat. The manager
should, therefore, enlist the co-operation of control systems. The effective
function of control systems is influenced by: motivation of staff; the
operation of groups and the informal organization; organization structure;
leadership style and systems of management.