Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
OF EDUCATION, YOUTH AND SPORTS
STATE UNIVERSITY УB. P. HASDEUФ
AND FRENCH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines
their Pragmatic Aspect
Headline is known as the name of literature, scientific or musical produce. Our
research on publicistic headline will study a lot of its definition. We shall
notice similarity between them as well. According to Kukharenco V.A., headline
is a text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the
article below it.
the headline a dependent from of newspaper writing. Its main function is to
inform the reader briefly about the text which follows it.
The main goal
of this research paper is to analyze publicistic headline from difficulties in
translation of publicistic headlines and their pragmatic aspect.
objectives of the given work are:
- To define
- to present
classification and structure of the publicistic headlines.
- to reveal
linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines.
- to explain
ways of translation the publicistic headlines and difficulties in translation
the publicistic headlines.
- to analyze
the pragmatic functions and difficulties in translation of publicistic
We have worked
much to complete our goal. The critical analysis of the scientific literature
has been fulfilled by us.
this paper we have addressed to such sources as manuals, monographs,
dictionaries and, of course publicistic works. In our research we have used
explanation and analysis as scientific theoretical methods. As for the
structure of the work, it falls into three chapters.
The first chapter
deals with the theory concerning publicistic style. It is divided into four
parts: 1) defining the Publicistic Headline; 2) classification and structure of
the publicistic headlines; 3) linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines;
4) on the applicability of publicistic headlines; 5) publicistic headlines
under pragmatic aspect.
chapter we defined the Publicistic Headline and their classification and
structure. Also we showed the publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect. We
wrote about linguistic peculiarities and their applicability of publicistic
chapter is devoted to the
translability of publicistic headlines. It is also falls into
three parts: 1) on the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style; 2) on
the ways of translation the publicistic headlines; 3) on the difficulties in
translation the publicistic headlines.
approaches of translation the Publicistic Headline in Newspaper Style and wrote
about different ways of translation. Also in this chapter we wrote difficulties
in translation the publicistic headlines.
chapter: establishing pragmatic value
of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation from English
into Russian. It is falls into two parts:
In the first we analyze publicistic headlines and their Pragmatic
functions. And the second in difficulties in translation of publicistic
It is all
theoretical and practical parts of our research paper about what we will write.
1.1 Defining the Publicistic Headline
definition of Headline is the name of literature, scientific or musical
produce. Many dictionaries define Headline as a short summary of the most
important items of news read at the beginning of a news programme on the radio
or television. Headline is one of the basic newspaper features. The headline is
the title given to a news item or newspaper article.
headlines (grab; hit) means to be an important item of news in newspapers or on
radio or television. To headline (usually passive) means to give a story or
article a particular headline:
War breaks out
dropped on Hiroshima
Man walks on
often contain emotionally colored words and phrases. To produce a strong
emotional effect, broken-up set expressions and deformed special terms are
commonly used. The Headline of news items apart from giving information about the
subject-matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal. Headlines are
usually written in bold and in a much larger size than the article text. Front
page headlines are often in upper case so that they can be easy read by the
potential customer. Headlines in other parts of the paper are more commonly in
sentence case though title case is often used in the USE.
characteristics features of Headlines are the most condensed piece of
information on minimum of space. Galperin mentions typical stylistic patterns
lifts price of domestic oil productsТ. (Financial Times).
e. g. СIt the
kitchen finished? (The Sun).
start for boursesТ (Financial Times).
drunk griever bannedТ (The Sun).
with articles omitted.
e. g. СPM
warns against hostility to USТ. (Daily Express).
with verbal- infinitive and gerundial.
it in the family pays off for bakerТ. (The Times).
in the form of statements.
food?Т (The Times).
including direct speech.
e. g. СBlair:
I should never have revealed I was quittingТ. (Mirror).
conventions include normally using present tense and omitting СaТ and СtheТ as
well as forms of the verb Сto beТ in certain context. [2, p.75]
- The Present
Simple is also used to describe actions as instant, happening in a moment. For
actions over a period, we use the continuous.
are playing really well now.
The crowd is
cheering them on.
features a very large Headline on their front page, dramatically describing the
biggest news of the day. Headline is the most basic text organizing tool used
to invite the reader to become involved with the publication. Limit headlines
to no more than three lines. A headline is text at the top of a newspaper
article, indicating the nature of the article below it. A headline which is
called Ц banner headline. The Headline (the title given to a news item or an
article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in part of a large
whole. The specific functional and linguistic features of the headline provide
sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific СgenreТ of
Classification and structure of the publicistic headlines
function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that
follows is about. Sometimes headlines show the reporterТs or paperТs attitude
of the fact reported. In most of the English and American newspapers
sensational headlines are quite common. The function and the peculiar nature of
English headlines determine the choice of language means used. [4, p.35]
Headlines also contain emotionally colored words and phrases as the italicized
words: ТCrazy waste of you? Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or
phrases and have a variety of pattern.
sentences СAtlantic sea TrafficТ.
sentences СOff to the Sun С.
with articles omitted. (Articles are frequently omitted in all types of
headline). СFrock man find gold in river С.
including direct speech.
in English language newspapers can be very difficult to understand. One reason
for this is that newspaper headlines are often written in a special style,
which is very difficult from ordinary English. In this style there are special
rules of grammar and words are often used in unusual ways.
are not always complete sentences. Many headlines consist of noun phrases with
More wage cuts.
Holiday Hotel Death.
often contain string of three, four or more nouns; nouns earlier in the string
modify those that follow.
Furniture factory pay cut row.
these can be difficult to understand. It sometimes helps to read them
backwards. Furniture Factory Pay Cut Row (disagreement) about a Cut (reduction)
in Pay at a Factory that makes Furniture.
often leave out articles and the verb СbeТ.
woman walks on moon.
headlines, simple tenses are often used instead of progressive or perfect
forms. The simple present is used for both present and past events.
Blind girl climbs Everest (=Еhas climbedЕ).
Student fight for course changes (=Еhas fighting Е).
progressive can be used, especially to talk about changes. Be is usually
Britain getting warmer, say scientist.
Trade figures improving.
headlines words are used as both nouns and verbs, and nouns are often used to
modify other nouns. So it is not always easy to work out the structure of a
cuts aid to third world (= The Us reduced its helpЕcuts is a verb, aid is a
Cuts Row (= There has been a disagreement about the reduction in aid. Aid and
Cuts is both noun).
Cuts Aid Rebels (= the reduction in aid is helping the revolutionaries. Cuts is
a noun, Aid is a verb).
often use infinitives to refer to the future.
to visit Australia.
Hospitals to take fewer patients.
For is also
used to refer to future movements or plants.
TROOPS FOR GLASGOW? (= Are soldiers going to be sent to Glasgow?).
verbs are usually dropped from passive structures, leaving past participles.
Murder Hunt: Man Held (=Еa man is being held by police.)
killed In Explosion (=Six people have been killedЕ).
forms like held, attacked are usually part participles with passive meanings,
not past tenses (which are rare are newspaper headlines). Compare:
ROW: PRESTDENT ATTACTED (=ЕThe President has attacked.)
ROW: PRESTDENT ATTACTED CRITICS (=ЕThe President has attacked her critics.)
Found Safe (= The missing boy had been found safe.)
Find Safe (= A boy has found a safe.)
h. A color is
often used to separate the subject of a headline from what is said about it.
Strikes: PM to
crash: Death toll rises. Quotation marks (СЕТ) are used to show that words were
said by some else, and that the newspaper does not necessarily claim that they
Driver СHad been drinkingТ
mark (?) is often used when something is not certain.
Crisis over by September?
save space, and so they are very common in newspaper headlines. Some of the
short words in headlines are unusual in ordinary language (e.g. curb, meaning
ТrestrictТ or СrestrictionТ), and some are used in special senses which they do
not often have in ordinary language (e.g. big, meaning СattemptТ). Other words
are chosen not because they are short, but because they sound dramatic (e.g.
blare, which means Сbig fireТ, and is used in headlines to refer to any fire). The
following is a list of common headline vocabulary.
Act - take
action: do something.
Government to act.
Aid Ц military
or financial help: to help
-More aid for
Alert Ц alarm,
on east coast.
Allege Ц make
alleges unfair treatment.
appear in court accused of a crime.
- MP to appear
on drugs charges.
Axe Ц abolish,
close down: abolition, closure.
- Country bus
schools face axe.
to the usage of the punТs mechanisms in publicity lead to better understanding
of the specificity of English press and may be used in the theory of
translation or during the creation of newspaper or advertisement headline with
the help of a pun.
(the title given to a news item or article) is a dependent form of newspaper
writing. It is in fact a part of a larger whole. The specific functional and
linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and
analyzing it as a specific УgenreФ of journalism. The main function of the headline
is to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows is about. But apart
from its, headlines often contain elements of appraisal i.e. they show the
reporterТs or the paperТs attitude to the facts reported or commented on, thus
also performing the function of instructing the reader.
headlines are short and catching; they Уcompact the gist of news stories into a
few eye-snaring words. A skillfully turned out headlines tells a story, or
enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the readerТs curiosity.Ф
headlines are almost a summary of the information contained in the news item or
and the peculiar nature of English headlines predetermine the choice of the
language means used. The vocabulary groups considered in the analysis of brief
news items are commonly found in headlines.
way for a more advanced learner to increase their English proficiency is to
read an English-language newspaper on a regular basis. Most people who read a
newspaper do so selectively and skim though the pages looking for the most
interesting-looking articles to read first. They usually make their choice on
the basis of the headlines of the articles. And this is where the difficulty
for the non-native speaker of English arises, since newspaper headlines are
often extremely difficult to understand. There are two main reasons for this.
The first reason is that newspaper headlines have to be brief and consequently
use words that are rarely used in everyday speech or indeed in the rest of the
article itself. (Probe for investigation, blast for explosion etc.) And the
second reason is that headline writers, at least in British newspapers, look
for every opportunity to include a pun in their headlines. It is the main
aspect of newspaper headlines that we want to concentrate on in this work.
headlines of all types (primary or page headlines, secondary or paper
headlines, paper subsection headlines, leads and captions) of the local daily
called Kauno diena) is emotionally destructive and people should be aware of
this in order to diminish its emotional impact.
By the basic
functions of newspaper titles nominativna, informing, communicative, and also
pragmatic or attraktivna, that will realize the action of text, his having a
special purpose orientation. Exactly some researchers consider this function
basic, as setting of title consists above all things in bringing in of
attention to the article, in creation of stimulus for its reading, which is
often achieved by the use of the system of expressive means of languages, among
which an important place is taken a play on words.
1.3 Linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines
The role of
newspaper in the nowadays life and its influence on the modern society is generally
recognized. The printed media remains one of the oldest a most effective way to
communicate the freshness news. Newspaper has the following basic features:
brief news items, advertisements and announcements, the editorial and the
headline. This paper investigates only one element of the newspaper- the
pragmatic effect of application of play on words in this title arising up as a
result of combination of frockТnТroll, that is paradoxical on character and
owns a fully certain estimating plan is something amusing and unusual.
Appropriately to assume that speech in the article will go about the place of
woman in modern music. A question is this serious, however estimating a plan,
formed the element of frock that is brought in a title complex bring in the
tint of sarcasm in the supposed interpretation of problem the author of the
title gives the very dim picture of Te, what theme of the article:
from Los Angeles mayorТs nest
orients a reader in the value of attitude toward the described facts, them
marks and uses a play on words: mayorТs nest omonimichno mareТs nest Ц to
expression, that a Уsenseless deviceФ means, and the question is about
machinations on selections, thus one of candidates Ц mer city Los-Angeles. A
pun in dannomu case carries expressively stylistic information which represents
author emotionally evaluation attitude toward an object, or expressively
cognitive setting of this linguistic registration of idea. Negative attitude of
author is here traced toward a situation which was folded on elections, and a
pun specifies on personality which to a certain extent is herein guilty, and
characterizes her. Except for it, a pun is directed on Te, to come into notice
of reader to the described events and compel him not only to laugh above them
but change their motion. [11, p.52]
The short and
capacious form of this pun is based on the vivid use of languages. Exactly an
associative vivid component adds maintenance a reception convincing and bright
character which predetermines him attractive function. In spite of trouble of
information which is stopped up in a title, a reader gets certain aesthetically
beautiful pleasure at his reading.
attracted the satiric orientation of title, reader will want to read a note.
The example of pun, beaten element based on etymologyzation is the English
The article is
about creation of artist I. Isupova, which attained extraordinary trade in art
In a stylistic
relation this case is imposition: simultaneous actualization and beating of
auditive and etymologic values of word УtattooФ takes place- 1) tattoo; 2) prohibition
[11, p.772]. Connection of metaphoric-metonymy appears between LSV: overt associations
(tattoo Цthat it is forbidden) and transferences for contiguity (prohibition as
subject action and tattoo is as a result of this prohibition), and epithet of
УsweetestФ Ц the УsweetФ contains illusion on biblical really a fruit is forbidden.
Tempting and beauty of tattoo is in a great deal conditioned exactly the
prohibition imposed on her. The use in the title of English dissemination has,
cleanly linguistic base: the semantic structure of the English noun of УtattooФ,
unlike proper him loan-word in Russian (what has one only, visual value),
enables to express in one entrance both LSV of this unit. In the considered
example is very brightly expressed marked researchers pragmatic a meaningful
feature of pun is aspiring to most semantic capacity at the use of the least of
means of languages.
about plagiarism of sings of commodities is published under a title: Sony
against Soni. The article of beating and mean of creation of visual effect is
exactly different graphic design components of pun at community of their
1.4 On the
applicability of publicistic headlines
publicistic style has its spoken variety Ц the radio and TV
and the oratorical sub Ц style. The written sub Ц styles are the essay and
journalistic articles in newspapers, magazines and journals. The basic aim of
the publicistic style is to exert an influence on public opinion, to convince
the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker
is correct and to make them accept his or her views though logical
argumentation and emotional appeal. [13.p.159] The development of the radio and
television has brought into a new spoken variety namely the radio commentary.
The other two are the essay (moral, social, economic) in newspapers and
magazines. The general aim as we have said is to exert a constant and deep
influence on public opinion. Publicistic style is also characterized by brevity
of expression. In some varieties of this style it becomes a leading feature and
important linguistic means. In essays brevity sometimes becomes epigrammatic. [14.p.824]
The most characteristic language features of the essay remain:
- Brevity of
- The use of
the first person singular which justified a personal approach treated.
- The use of
- The use of
similes and metaphors.
depending on the writerТs individuality is written in a highly emotional manner
resembling the style of emotive prose. Others resemble scientific prose. The
essay in our days is often biographical: persons; facts and events are taken
from life. These essays differ from those of previous centuries, their
vocabulary is simpler.
Publicistic headlines under pragmatic aspect
Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of
language in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.
Pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as
communicated by a speaker (or writer) and interpreted by a listener (or
reader). It has, consequently, more to do with the analysis of what people mean
by their utterances than what the words or phrases in those utterances might
mean by themselves. Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. This type of
study necessary involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular
context and how the context influences what is said. It requires a consideration
of how speakers organize what to say in accordance with who theyТre talking to,
where, when, and under what circumstances. Pragmatics is the study of
contextual meaning. This approach also necessary explores how listeners can
make inferences about what is said in order to arrive at an interpretation of
the speakerТs intended meaning. This type of study explores how a great deal of
what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated. We might say that
it is the investigation of invisible meaning. Pragmatics is the study of how
more gets communicated than is said. This perspective then raises the question
of what determines the choice between the said and the unsaid. The basic answer
is tied to the notion of distance. Closeness, whether it is physical, social,
or conceptual, implies shared experience. On the assumption of how close or
distant the listener is speakers determine how much needs to be said.
Pragmatics is the study of the expression of relative distance. These are the
four areas that pragmatics is concerned with. To understand how it got to be
that way, we have to briefly review its relationship with other areas of
linguistic analysis. [17, p.3] УPragmatics is all about the meanings between
the lexis and the grammar and the phonology...Meanings are implied and the
rules being followed are unspoken, unwritten ones.Ф[16, George Keith]
УPragmatics is a way of investigating how sense can be made
of certain texts even when, from a semantic viewpoint, the text seems to be
either incomplete or to have a different meaning to what is really intended.
Consider a sign seen in a children's wear shop window: УBaby Sale - lots of
bargainsФ. We know without asking that there are no babies are for sale - that
what is for sale are items used for babies. Pragmatics allows us to investigate
how this Уmeaning beyond the wordsФ can be understood without ambiguity. The
extra meaning is there, not because of the semantic aspects of the words
themselves, but because we share certain contextual knowledge with the writer
or speaker of the text.
Pragmatics is an important area of study for your course. A
simplified way of thinking about pragmatics is to recognize, for example, that
language needs to be kept interesting - a speaker or writer does not want to
bore a listener or reader, for example, by being over-long or tedious. So,
humans strive to find linguistic means to make a text, perhaps, shorter, more
interesting, more relevant, more purposeful or more personal. Pragmatics allows
Keith notes that: УThe vast majority of pragmatics studies have been devoted to
conversation, where the silent influence of context and the undercurrents are
he goes on to show how written texts of various kinds can be illuminated by
pragmatics, and he cites particular examples from literature. Pragmatics gives
us ways into any written text. Take the following example, which is a headline
from the Guardian newspaper of May 10, 2002. This read: УHealth crisis looms as
life expectancy soars.Ф
we study the semantics of the headline, we may be puzzled. The metaphor (УsoarsФ)
indicates an increase in the average life-expectancy of the UK population. Most
of us are living longer. So why is this crisis for health? Pragmatics supplies
the answer. The headline writer assumes that we share his or her understanding
that the crisis is not in the health or longevity of the nation, but in the
financial cost to our society of providing health care for these long-living
people. The UK needs to pay more and employ more people to provide this care.
Reading the article will show this. Or take any item of unsolicited mail more
or less at random - such as a letter sent to me by Mr. David Moyes, the manager
of Everton Football Club. Mr. Moyes opens with an invitation: УSUPPORT YOUR
TEAMФ, followed by the question:
УHow would you
like to support Everton and receive some excellent benefits at the same time?Ф
this come details of a Platinum Plus credit card and some associated offers of
free gifts. The letter closes with a copy of Mr. Moyes' signature, with his
name and position (УTeam ManagerФ) in print below. We can conjecture that the
immediate writer of this letter is not Mr. Moyes, but someone with knowledge of
financial products, employed by the club to help raise money from fans. I can
be more confident that this is so, since it is only a few months since I
received a near-identical letter, bearing the signature of the previous
manager, Mr. Walter Smith. The writer assumes that he or she is addressing people
who have at some point described themselves as supporters of Everton FC - the
mail shot will have gone only to names on a database of such potential
cardholders. Closer inspection suggests that the letter does not necessarily
come from the club, as УEvertonФ appears in a typeface different from the
surrounding text - prompting the thought that the card issuer (MBNA Europe bank
Limited) is the real source of the letter, and has signed up various sporting
clubs to endorse its product. The card issuer understands that recipients of
such offers will rarely wish to apply for a new credit card, and therefore
attempts to exploit my affection for Everton FC as a novel or sentimental
reason to do so. The second half of the opening sentence may reflect a sense that
most supporters do not receive Уexcellent benefits at the same timeФ - though
perhaps the humour here is unintended. This kind of practical analysis is a
good exercise. Sometimes a teacher will need to ask students to write it, but
this will limit how much you can do. It would be better for members of a
teaching group to spend five or ten minutes at least once a week, producing an
unprepared spoken pragmatic reading of texts chosen at random by the teacher or
student. Pragmatics as an explicit field of study is not compulsory for
students taking Advanced level courses in English Language. But it is one of
the five Уdescriptions of languageФ commended by the AQA syllabus B (the others
are: lexis, grammar, phonology and semantics). In some kinds of study it will
be odd if some consideration of pragmatics does not appear in your analysis or
interpretation of data. In commenting on texts you are seeing for the first
time, you may need to make use of some pragmatic concepts, as in this example,
from Adrian Attwood:
We know from
the question that Text F is a sales script. The pragmatic consideration of this
text makes us look for features, which are designed to reassure the potential
customer rather than to inform them. Particularly, in this case, where the
script is for a telephone conversation and one of the objects from the
sales-person's viewpoint is to keep the other person talking. This means that
the text will try to close off as many potential exits as possible and
therefore be similar to some of the normal co-operative principles of spoken
investigations or research into language, you can choose whether to undertake a
task in which pragmatic analysis is appropriate. So if you really don't like it
(or fear it), then you should avoid a task where its absence will look
suspicious, and draw attention to your dislike. One area of language study
where pragmatics is more or less unavoidable is any kind of study of spoken
language in social interactions (and written forms like e-mail or computer chat
that approximate to speech). In studying language and occupation or language
and power, you cannot easily avoid the use of pragmatic frameworks for
analysis. This guide has few examples in it, because I have supposed that you
will apply the analytical methods, under your teachers' guidance, to texts that
you find for yourself - including spoken data in audio and video recordings.
Chapter II On the translability of
2.1 On the approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style
newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical,
phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by the community
speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of
informing and instructing the reader.
primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed
matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can
be classed as:
1. brief news
items and communiqués;
reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.);
purely informational in character;
advertisements and announcements.
concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news
items, apart from giving information about the subject-matter, also carry a
considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the
use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus
indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.
a) Brief news
of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without
giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is
characterized by an extensive use of:
political and economic terms;
grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and
may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style:
sentences with a developed system of clauses;
is the title given to a news item of a newspaper article. The main function of
the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is
headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a variety of patterns:
with articles omitted;
in the forms of statements;
including direct speech.
Advertisements and announcements
of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic
types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper:
classified and non-classified(separate).
advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged
according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.
As for the
separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and
subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be
an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and
the publistic style.
of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of
certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with
the help of various stylistic devices(especially metaphors and epithets), both
lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
of science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose,
which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the
internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena,
etc. There are following characteristic features of scientific style:
1. the logical
sequence of utterances;
2. the use of
terms specific to each given branch of science;
sentence-patterns. They are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative and
4. the use of
quotations and references;
frequent use of foot-note, of the reference kind, but digressive in character.
impersonality of scientific writings can also be considered a typical feature
of this style.
f) The style
of official documents
literary English this is the style of official documents. It is not homogeneous
and is represented by the following substyles or variants:
language of business documents;
language of legal documents;
3. that of
4. that of
The main aim
of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in
an undertaking. The most general function of the style of official documents
predetermines the peculiarities of the style. The most noticeable of all
syntactical features are the compositional patterns of the variants of this
code of the official style falls into a system of subcodes, each characterized
by its own terminological nomenclature, its own compositional form, its own
variety of syntactical arrangements. But the integrating features of all these
subcodes emanating from the general aim of agreement between parties, remain
conventionality of expression;
2. absence of
3. the encoded
character of language; symbols and
4. a general syntactical mode
of combining several pronouncements into one sentence.[1, Stylistics]
approaches of translation used in Newspaper Style are pragmatic value of publicistic
headlines and difficulties of their translation it is grammatical features in
English and Russian Headlines.
2.2 On the ways of translation the publicistic headlines
half of the 20th century has seen the in-depth study of translation,
which is sometimes called Theory of Translation, Science of Translation, Translation
Linguistics, or even Translatology.
It has been
claimed abroad that translation studies began in 1972 with HolmesТs paper
presented at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics, УThe Name
and Nature of Translation StudiesФ.1 However, unfortunately, European and
American scholars seemed to have been unaware of the achievements of the
Russian school of translation studies. Works by V. Komissarov, A. Shveitser, A.
Fedorov and many others confirmed the status of translation studies as a
discipline of its own even in the 1950s.
concern of translation theory is to determine appropriate translation methods
for the widest possible range of texts and to give insight into the translation
process, into the relations between thought and language, culture and speech.
several aspects of this branch of linguistics:
theory of translation, whose object is general notions typical of translation
from any language.
(or partial, in terms of Holmes) theory of translation that deals with the
regularities of translation characteristic of particular languages - for
example, translation from English into Russian and vice versa.
(partial) theory of translation that pays attention to texts of various
registers and genres.
There are two
terms corresponding to the Russian word УпереводФ: translation and interpretation. Those who discriminate
between the terms refer the term СtranslationТ to the written text, and the
term СinterpretationТ to oral speech. However, the terms are polysemantic: to
interpret might mean Уto render or discuss the meaning of the textФ Ц an
outstanding British translation theorist P.Newmark, for example, states that
Уwhen a part of a text is important to the writerТs intention, but
insufficiently determined semantically, the translator has to interpretФ.4
The term to translate is often referred to any (written or oral) manner of
expression in another language.
also differentiate the terms translating and rendering. When we translate, we
express in another language not only what is conveyed in the source text but
also how it is done. In rendering, we only convey the ideas (the what) of the
approaches are used for defining translation: in Newspaper Style with pragmatic
value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation it is
grammatical features in English and Russian Headlines.
2.3 On the difficulties in translation the publicistic
headings of newspapers or news on the Internet in English are difficult enough
for understanding. First, they have the grammatical nuances. Secondly, in
headlines use the words which are not so often used in colloquial speech. In
this post we will stop on grammatical features of headlines.
1) As a rule,
headlines represent incomplete sentences, that is, they consist only of
keywords, without articles, auxiliary verbs etc.
4 found guilty in London bomb plot Ц то есть - four
people have been found guilty in London bomb plot (четырех
человек объ€вили виновными в подготовке взрывов в Ћондоне);
Heavy fighting at Lebanese camp ( гор€чий бой произошел в ливанском
Steegmans too strong for Boonen - Steegmans is too strong
for Boonen (—тигменс слишком силен дл€ Ѕунена) 
headlines simple times are used: Present Simple used, when event has already
occurred or occurs. It can sometimes be used Present Continuous to underline
process or change of the present situation. But, besides, it will be used
without an auxiliary verb. If in headline says that will occur in future, may
be it is the infinitive will be used. (A verb + a participle to) 
Pakistani soldiers storm mosque (солдаты ѕакистана вз€ли штурмом мечеть);
Strong earthquake strikes Mexico - Strong
earthquake has struck Mexico (сильное землетр€сение обрушилось на
NASA robot to dig on Mars ( робот
Ќј—ј будет раскапывать почву ћарса);
Actress Collette expecting child Ц Actress Collette is expecting
child (актриса олетт ждет ребенка) 
3) the translation must retain the
same communicative function as the source text. The description and enumeration
of speech functions can be found in the work by R. Jakobson, who pointed out
function, i.e. conveying information: Ћавры моего конкурента не дают мне спать. Ц I am green with envy because of
the success of my competitor.
function, i.e. expressing the speakerТs emotions: Ќа кой леший мне такой друг? Ц What on earth do I need such a
function, i.e. aesthetic impact:
Tiger, Tiger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;
What immortal hand or eye,
Could frame thy fearful symmetry? (W.Blake)
“игр, “игр, в лесу ночном
ћрачный взгл€д горит огнем.
„ь€ бессмертна€ рука
∆изнь влила в твои бока? (ѕер. .‘илатовой)
These sentences have only one thing
in common: general intent of communication, communication aim, or function. At
first glance, the source and target texts have no obvious logical connection;
they usually designate different situations, have no common semes (i.e.
smallest components of meaning), and have different grammar structures.
Chapter III Establishing
pragmatic value of publicistic headlines and difficulties of their translation
from English into Russian
3.1 Pragmatic functions of publicistic headlines
paper is based on studying 100 headlines, 50 of publicistic headlines analyzing
in pragmatic functions and 50 headlines difficulties of their
translation from English into Russian.
headlines have been divided according to pragmatic functions. Here is given the
analysis of Russian and English headlines on the syntactical levels.
transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on
the similarity of one feature common to two different entities, on possessing
one common characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common
component in their semantic structures.
The metaphor УCosmic
DanceФ implies unusual dances. The redactor compares УcosmicФ and УdanceФ,
because in УLime clubФ the dances were unusual, like a cosmic movement.
OF DARKNESS FROM VOLCANOФ
DarknessФ is a genuine metaphor, quite unexpected and rather effective.
УBlanket of DarknessФ implies a present from volcano or volcano eruption in
STORM CLOUDS THICKENED OVER UKRAINEФ
( ќћћ≈–—јЌ“Џ, 09.08.09, p.15)
clouds thickenedФ implies tense struggle between elections. In order to
demonstrate the hot atmosphere in Ukraine, the redactor uses the metaphor The
storm clouds thickened
BRIDGE TO THE PASTФ
(Daily Nation, 14.01.10, p.5)
A bridge to the pastФ is a symbol of
connection between present and the past time. The redactor uses УA bridge to
the pastФ, to show that the old fashion from the past comes back in the
TURBULENT PAST LEONARDOФ
(Daily Nation, 08.02.10, p.43)
УA turbulent pastФ implies active
life in the past. Leonardo de Capri tells in interview about his УturbulentФ
life at teenage age.
Metonymy. transference of names based
on nearness, on axtralinguistic, actually existing relations between the
objects, denoted by the words, on common grounds of existence in reality but
different semantic. It is based on a different type of relation between the
dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on identification, but
on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings
IN NASA MISSION CONTROLФ
Nation, 23.03.10, p.32)
УNASA Mission controlФ is a metonymy
and it symbolizes Texas, for which the call sign is
"Houston". The author implies that the spot was in Houston, largest
city in the state of Texas.
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH BEGIN TALKS ON NEW LAWSФ (Daily Nation, 12.03.10, p.21)
УThe Roman Catholic ChurchФ is
metonymy which author uses. He implies the pope and Catholic bishops, which met in Nakuru to discuss the draft constitution, among
FILM IN AMERICAN FILM & TELEVISION INDUSTRYФ
(Daily Nation, 12.03.10, p.45)
film and television industryФ is metonymy which symbolizes a section of Los
Angeles. It is Hollywood which makes a new film.
УGENEVA EIGHT RED CROSS STAFF KIDNAPPED IN DRCФ
cross staffФ is eight person, who symbolizes the doctors from Switzerland. They
were kidnapped in DRC. УDRCФ is Democratic
Republic of Congo, which is also abbreviation.
White House said: `Yes' FOCUS ON CONSTITUTION "
White House said" is a metonym for the president and his staff, because
the White House is not part of the president or his staff but is closely
associated with them.
Irony. - is a stylistic device in
which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly opposite to its
dictionary meaning - is the contradiction between the said and implied. It must
not be confused with humour.
Hard Times CaféТ
Times Cafe" is irony and implies something bad and sad. The restaurant
called "Hard Times Cafe" has closed down because of the recession
Difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines
headings share on three categories:
in Present simple. They say that someone has made any action.
УUnemployed Man Wins £ 1MФ - Ѕезработный
выиграл миллион фунтов.
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.16)
to laconic and brevity in headlines has led to that unnecessary, insignificant
words from them simply throw out. In particular, it concerns definite and
indefinite articles, in headlines very seldom can to meet such words, as УaФ,
УanФ and УtheФ. Also the auxiliary verbs fall out from headlines. The usual sentence is - unemployed man has won a
УForgotten Brother AppearsФ - «абытый брат вернулс€
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.19)
As the usual offer: A forgotten brother has appeared. In
headline we have not the article УaФ and
УViolent protests in Jakarta over
Islamic tombФ - —ильные протесты в ƒжакарте на »сламские могилы
(Daily Nation, 15.03.10, p.26)
As the usual offer: The violent has protested in Jakarta
over Islamic tomb. In headline we have not the article УtheФ and the auxiliary verb УhasФ.
locks up utility worker over unpaid billФ - ∆енщина запирает сервисного
рабочего по неоплаченному счету.
(Daily Nation, 15.03.10, p.31)
As the usual offer: A women has locked up the utility
worker over of the unpaid bill.
УVillagers build on glory of school they burnt 57 years agoФ - —ельские
жители основываютс€ на славе школы, которую они сожгли 57 лет назад
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.33)
As the usual offer: The villagers have built on the glory
of school, which they burnt 57 years ago.
triples after return of displaced familiesФ - ƒоход утраиваетс€ после возвращени€ перемещенных семей
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.48)
As the usual offer: The revenue has tripled after return of
the displaced families.
says bye-bye to international soccerФ - јдебайор говорит пока международному футболу.
(Daily Nation, 14.03.10, p.51)
As the usual offer: Adebayor has said bye-bye to the
seeks to set new record in LondonФ - „эмпайон стремитс€ установить новый рекорд
(Daily Nation, 16.03.10, p.9)
As the usual offer: The champion has sought to set a new
record in London.
УAmend new laws first, say eldersФ -
»справьте новые законы сначала, говор€т старшие
(Daily Nation, 02.03.10, p.10)
As the usual offer: Amend the new laws, have said the
team of runners battle for qualificationФ - Ѕольша€
борютс€ за квалификацию
(Daily Nation, 16.03.10, p.16)
As the usual offer: Large team of the runners have battled
for the qualification.
УNuclear Weapons Obama presses for Iran
actionФ - ядерное оружие ќбамы требует действи€ »рана
(Daily Nation, 07.03.10, p.34)
As the usual offer: The Nuclear Weapons Obama has pressed
for Iran action
УChelsea closer to Premier League crownФ -
„елси приближаетс€ к √лавной короне Ћиги
(Daily Nation, 01.03.10, p.11)
As the usual offer: Chelsea has closered to the Premier
leaves for GermanyФ - Kониа уезжает
(Daily Nation, 07.03.10, p.22)
As the usual offer: Kaunya has left for Germany.
Kenya launches pro-draft campaignФ Ц ‘орд иниа начинает кампанию проекта
(Daily Nation, 05.03.10, p.8)
As the usual offer: Ford Kenya has launched the pro-draft
УCouncillors vow to block proposed lawsФ - „лены совета кл€нутс€ заблокировать предложенные
(Daily Nation, 14.02.10, p.21)
As the usual offer: The councilors have vowed to block the
pushes for consensus ahead of vote to avert chaosФ - ”хюру стремитс€ к согласи€м перед голосованием, чтобы предотвратить хаос
(Daily Nation, 14.02.10, p.24)
As the usual offer: Uhuru has pushed for consensus ahead
of the vote, that to avert chaos.
УCBK sue over seized papersФ - CBK
предъ€вл€ют иск по конфискованным бумагам
(Daily Nation, 18.02.10, p.55)
As the usual offer: CBK have sued over seized papers.
with use of a participle of last time. TheФy say that something has been made
in passive voice.
УSix killed in rail accidentФ - ¬
железнодорожной аварии погибло шестеро
(Daily Nation, 22.01.10, p.15)
As the usual offer: Six people have been killed in a rail
accident. In headline we have not Уhave beenФ the auxiliary verb, which indicates
in the participle of last time and the
УNew Shakespeare play discoveredФ- Ќайдена нова€ пьеса Ўекспира
(Daily Nation, 14.12.08, p.77)
As the usual offer would sound so: A new Shakespeare play
has been discovered. Also in it we have not articles and auxiliary verbs. In
the same way the ordinary offer УThe White House has been damaged by a bombФ
turns to laconic headline:
УWhite House damaged by bombФ- «дание
правительства пострадало от взрыва бомбы.
(Daily Nation, 22.11.08, p.55)
УFour die in crashes on highwayФ - ¬ аварии на шоссе четверо погибло
(Daily Nation, 24.11.08, p.17)
As the usual offer: Four people have been dead in the
crashes on highway.
УHawker held after killing of traderФ Ц ”личного
торговца задержали после убийства торговца
(Daily Nation, 14.09.09, p.67)
As the usual offer: The hawker has been held after killing
УStadium handed over to Zimbabwe after
repairsФ - —тадион передали «имбабве после ремонта
(Daily Nation, 01.10.09, p.41)
As the usual offer: The stadium has been handed over to
Zimbabwe after the repairs.
УHundreds evacuated as volcano erupts in
IcelandФ - —отни людей эвакуированы так как вулкан извергс€ в »сландии
(Daily Nation, 23.08.09, p.19)
As the usual offer: Hundreds people have been evacuated as
the volcano erupts in Iceland.
УDraft Church has made mistakes in pastФ -
÷ерковный проект сделал ошибки в прошлом
(Daily Nation, 17.02.10, p.67)
As the usual offer: The Draft of Church has been made
mistakes in the past.
УPeacekeepers in Darfur kidnappedФ - ѕохищены силы
по поддержанию мира в ƒарфуре
(Daily Nation, 15.02.10, p.90)
As the usual offer: The peacekeepers in Darfur have been
УFifteen killed in bomb attacks in PhilippinesФ - ѕ€тнадцать убитых
в нападени€х с применением взрывных устройств в ‘илиппинах
(Daily Nation, 24.01.10, p.86)
As the usual offer: Fifteen peoples have been killed in the
bomb attacks in Philippines.
УPNU activist summoned over complaint on
RailaФ - јктивист ѕќЌ вызван по жалобе к –эйлу
(Daily Nation, 28.02.10, p.33)
As the usual offer: PNU activist has been summoned over the
complaint on Raila.
УCouple killed in night raidФ - ѕара убита в вечернем набеге
(Daily Nation, 17.01.10, p.109)
As the usual offer: The couple man and woman have been
killed in night raid.
УISIOLO Voter listing official shot dead
by banditsФ - »збиратель ISIOLO, перечисл€ющий чиновникам, застрелен бандитами.
(Daily Nation, 19.12.09, p.113)
As the usual offer: ISIOLO Voter listing official has been
shoot by bandits.
УThe days of double voting numbered under
new systemФ - ƒни двойного голосовани€ пронумерованы под новой системой
(Daily Nation, 29.07.09, p.49)
As the usual offer: The days of double voting has been
numbered under a new system.
with an infinitive. They say about the future event, which yet does not happen,
but should occur.
УQueen to visit IndiaФ - оролева
собираетс€ посетить »ндию.
(Daily Nation, 24.03.07, p.124)
As the usual offer: the Queen is going to visit India. In
headline we have not the article ФtheФ and the auxiliary verb to be ЦУisФ plus
irregular verb to go Ц УgoingФ.
ФMayor to Open Shopping MallФ - ћэр откроет новый торговый комплекс
(Daily Nation, 30.06.09, p.53)
As the usual offer: The mayor is going to open a new
assist Angolan returnees from CongoФ - —Ўј собераетс€ помочь ангольцам
вернувшимс€ из онго
(Daily Nation, 27.03.10, p.51)
As the usual offer: The USA is going to assist Angolan
returnees from Congo.
УBashir's party to offer opposition postsФ - —торона Ѕэшира предложит должности оппозиции
(Daily Nation, 27.02.10, p.87)
As the usual offer: Bashir's party is going to offer opposition posts.
УGoodluck yet to see Yar'AduaФ
- √удлак все же, собераетс€ увидеть ярадуа.
(Daily Nation, 25.03.10, p.71)
As the usual offer: Goodluck yet is going to see
УEU to monitor Ethiopia electionsФ - ≈—, наблюдет за проведением
(Daily Nation, 02.04.10, p.15)
As the usual offer: EU is going to monitor Ethiopia
to press on with local controlФ - ’араре
продолжает с местным контролем
(Daily Nation, 14.04.10, p.116)
As the usual offer: Harare is going to press on with
to play against Ghana in 5-nation tieФ - ени€ играeт против √аны в игре с 5 наци€ми
(Daily Nation, 03.04.10, p.64)
As the usual offer: Kenya is going to play against Ghana
in 5-nation tie.
to cut cost of electricityФ - ƒожди
сокращ€ют расходы электричества.
(Daily Nation, 09.04.10, p.3)
As the usual offer: The rains are going to cut the cost of
УParty in threat to oppose draftФ Ц ”грозы партии выступить против проекта
(Daily Nation, 31.05.09, p.8)
As the usual offer: The party in threat is going to
oppose the draft.
members to contribute moreФ - ”частники NHIF продолжаютс€ более
(Daily Nation, 28.05.09, p.98)
As the usual offer: NHIF members are going to contribute
and Raila to tour projectsФ Ц Kэбаки и
–эйл совершают поездку по
(Daily Nation, 12.04.10, p.88)
As the usual offer: Kibaki and Raila is going to tour
IL to launch
regional plan to end child labour
УIL to launch regional plan to end child laborФ - ќ–√јЌ»«ј÷»я “–”ƒј начнет региональный план
закончить детский труд
(Daily Nation, 01.04.10, p.46)
As the usual offer: IL is going to launch the regional
plan to end the child labor.
system to catch cheats at the ballotФ - Ќова€ система поймает обманы в избирательном бюллетене
†(Daily Nation, 27.04.09, p.11)
As the usual offer: A new system is going to catch cheats
at the ballot.
votes recount to go on, says judgeФ - ѕересчет голосов —тэйе продолжаетс€, говорит
(Daily Nation, 24.08.09, p.34)
As the usual offer: Starehe votes recount is going to go
on, says judge.
likely to face tribunalФ - Kiplagat веро€тно стоит перед трибуналом
(Daily Nation, 14.06.09, p.47)
As the usual offer: Kiplagat likely is going to face
workers to get a pay increase - –абочие совета
получают увеличение платы
(Daily Nation, 09.06.09, p.61)
As the usual offer: The Council workers are going to get
a pay increase.
research we analyzed the publicistic headline from difficulties in translation
of publicistic headlines and their pragmatic aspect:
- we have
defined publicistic headline and their classification and structure.
- we have
revealed linguistic peculiarities of publicistic headlines.
- we have
explained ways of translation the publicistic headlines and difficulties in
translation the publicistic headlines.
- we analyzed the
pragmatic functions and difficulties in translation of publicistic headlines.
We have begun
with the definition of the publicistic headlines and their classification and
structure. It is difficult evidence because of inhomogeneous tasks and
conditions of communication and in general of peculiarities of extra linguistic
base. Although about language and style of publicistic is written a lot of
special functional Ц stylistic investigation of this style have began not long
ago. Publicistic is a literature on actual, social, political themes.
Publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular the oratorical sub-style.
The new spoken varieties are the radio commentary, the essay and articles.
style is also characterized by brevity of expression. Galperin states that the
publicistic style became discernible as a separate style in the middle of the
18th century. The basic aim of the publicistic style is to exert an
influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the
interpretation given by the writer or speaker is correct and to make them
accept his or her views though logical argumentation and emotional appeal. The
style of newspaper headlines studied as a restricted language. Headline is the
title of a newspaper article printed in letters especially at the top of the
front page. The general definition of headline is a short summary of the most
important items of news read at the beginning of a news programme on the radio
or television. Headlines very often contain emotionally colored words and
phrases. The characteristic features of headlines are the most condensed piece
of information on minimum of space. Headline is the most basic text Ц
organizing tool used to invite the reader to become involved with the
publication. English headlines are short and catching.
research has given us the idea of headlines. Headline is a dependent form of
news paper writing. It is in fact a part of a larger whole. The specific
functional and linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground
for isolating and analyzing it as a specific УgenreФ of journalism.