Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы)
Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы)
№1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages.
Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the
morphologically and genealogically.
we classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of the word of
a living language. When we classified the language genealogically we mean the
origin of the language. According to the M.C. the language are divided
into languages having not affixes and the lang-s with affixes. The words of the
lang-e, which has not affixes, are unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in,
at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important in lang-s with has no
affixes. Languages with affixes are classified into agglutinative and
inflected. Both of them are characterized by affixes but the connection between
the root or the steam of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In
inflected languages the suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-European
family (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinative
languages the suffix is characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang.,
in English – some words like ox-oxen’s-бык). Agglutinative languages are
divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to the G.C.
all the lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They
are: Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian,
№2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare.
The verb is a notional part of speech. Both in E&R
the verb denote an action (to write - писать), a process (to work) and
a state (to sit, stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal
predicate. (Она пишет письма
каждый день. She writes letters every
day.) Morphologically the verb in Russian is characterized by the following
categories: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has
the same categories but they has not the category of gender but they has a time
of relations. The verbs may be classified into: subjective and objective.
Subjective verbs are connected with their subject. In English practically all
the verbs are subjective. In Russian – not all. They may be used without their
subjects (Темнеет). Objective verbs are closely connected with two
nouns or noun equivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their
objects directly are transitive verbs, all others – intransitive.
As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and
abundance of stem-building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-, -ова-, -ствова-).
In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate, -en, etc).
Though the number of prefixes in English is greater (mis-, un-, be-, out-,
The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is
conversion. It is not characteristic in Russian (because of the different
structures). We find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find
no gerund in Russian. The Infinitive in English is characterized by such
categories as voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is
different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past
Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are
tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses
are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and
№3. The category of tense in English and in Russian
There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and
Future. But there is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is
because the two lang-s are different in their morphological structure. The
Russian lang. has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor.
In English all grammatical tenses are divided into 4
large groups. They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The
specific feature of the English language is that all the tenses are analytical
but the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect
forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect
forms because they express both the time of an action and the character of an
action (He is reading a book now).
The tense-system of the verb is different in the two
languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present
Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but
the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only
the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical.
№4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian
Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect.
But this category of two languages is quite different. In English the category
of aspect shows the character of an action. That is whether the action is shown
as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads books
everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and the
non-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the completeness
or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject is
usually form in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести,
занести…). Different verbs combine with the different number
of prefixes. Usually the verb with the suffix –ну- express instantanian action. In English we used only
one word (толкать, толкнуть – to push). There are some modern verb in Russian
with the suffix –ну- which do
not express instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfective
aspect. The words of imperfective aspect are formed by means of such
suffixes as –ыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-, -я-. (переписать
– переписывать, забить – забивать). In
English the repetition of an action is usually expressed with the help of the
prefix “re-“ (to write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of
words of motions which have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category
of aspect in MoR is very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the
The category of voice in English and in Russian compare.
There are different points of view concerning the
number of voices both in ER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in
MoR: active, middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices
in English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read by the
boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in the
passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action. There are some group of
verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice: 1) all the intransitive
verbs without the suffix «–ся»
(идти, ехать, ходить), 2) reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones (споткнуться, улыбнуться), 3) some verbs with the suffix «–ся» having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись).
The specific feature of the English language is that
the Passive voice may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object.
(She gave me a book. I was given a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let us compare
the number of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian
have two: пишет - пишется. In English we have 10
active-passive opposition. The forms of the Future Continues, Present Perfect
Continues, Past Perfect Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the
Passive Voice. The category of voice is closely connected with the text (братья переписываются, бумаги переписываются секретарем). The instrumental case in Russian
corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particle
expresses a state – Active voice, when it expresses the action – Passive voice.
The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier and
sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually
emphasize an action (the door has been shut – s.v.pr.).
The category of mood in English and in Russian compare.
We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood
expresses the relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock –
reality, If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The
relation of an action to reality may be expressed lexically. Then we use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation of an
action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we
use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phonetically with the
help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the most complicated
categories especially in English. Usually we speak about three moods in
повелительное и сослагательное). The
number of moods in MoE is greater. The best classification of moods was
introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into
direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional
and conditional) moods.
The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare.
In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a
probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня было время, я бы посетил
тебя.) There are many opinions exists
concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods
in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion
that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the
optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods.
But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional and subjunctive I are
grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible, imaginary actions. But
there are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form
of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”.
(I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form.
It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I
should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex
sentences. (It is necessary that all the students be present at the
classroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is
necessary that all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form
and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood. The SII and the
conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or
non-fact actions. SII is considered to be a syntactical mood. It has two forms.
If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincides
with the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used to
be “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the
Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually used
in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is an
analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should or
Would”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually
used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I should
do it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If I
had been you I should have done it).
The subjunctive mood in MoR is formed from the past
tense form adding the particle “бы”. It possesses the category of gender and number.
№9. The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare.
The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same.
It expresses “thingness”. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same
functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My
father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of
Russian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик,
доченька). In English there is a suffix “-let”
(booklet, leaflet). In both languages we find the grammatical category of
number and case. But they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases
while in English we find only 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The
common case in English isn’t marked while the nominative case in Russian is
marked. (Cf: a table –стол, a window – окно). The formation of the
plural number is standard in English and non-standard in Russian. Number and
case are sometimes expressed by separate morphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s).
The case-morpheme – “’s” may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man
I saw yesterday’s son). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the
relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is used
only with nouns (Peter’s book - книга Пети). The common case in English is very widely used. It
may function as any part of the sentence – subject, object, predicative,
attributive, and adverbial modifier. Prepositions are of great importance in
English. The of-phrase is practically used with all the nouns. The
difference between the possessive case and the of-phrase is rather
stylistic. The category of gender in the two languages is different. In Russian
it is morphological while in English it is lexical. Practically we have only
one suffix in English to express this category morphologically – “-ess”.
In both languages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable. Uncountable
include singularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly
always the correlation between the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семья ждет, сани едут). In English it is not so. (The cables are, physics
is, the family is/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not
large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто,
такси, кенгуру, депо).
In both languages the functions of different cases are
different. In Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an
accusative case may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental
case is used as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically
as an attribute.
№10. The category of state in E&R compare.
In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно.
This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammarians this words
were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicative adverbs
or adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form an
independent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In English
such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, Хаймович called
them add-link, and some others called them the words of the category of state
or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class: 1) words
beginning with “a-“ - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words
beginning with “a-“ - which is not a prefix (afraid, awake, aloof,
etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives or
adverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The question
is rather complicated because different grammarians refer different words of
this class. Жигайло, Иванова, Йофик refer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“.
There is an opinion that this class is very rich in words expressing a state. (Лейкина
refers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’s up?).
Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state form an
independent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically,
morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said that semantically they
denote a state, morphologically they are characterized by the element “a-“,
and syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep –
comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type “asleep” do not from an independent
part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of view was put
forward by professor Бархударов. 3) The words of the type “alive” do not form a
grammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is because a state
may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun (it’s time to
have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and 3) by participle
II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put forward by professor Вилюман.
№11. The adjective as a part of speech in E&R
Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the
same meanings. It expresses the quality or the characteristics of an action.
The adj. is characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical
functions. They are attribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book
is interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in ER is different. The Russian
adj-e is more changeable. It’s characterized by such morphological categories
as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of
comparison. (интересная книга –
интересные книги, яркое солнце, интересный собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category – the
category of the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the
best). There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the
positive degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in
English is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый, красивая, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have
practically one grammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic
(хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular
number, nominative case, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative as
красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most
qualitative adjectives have short forms, which are usually used as predicative.
The combinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. In English
we usually speak about lexical and lexical-grammatical combinability. In
Russian the grammatical combinability is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол). The English adjective may have its right-hand
connection with the prop-word “one” (a good one, a nice one). There are some
adj-ves in Russian the syntactical function of which changes the meaning
(present, ill, glad; the present situation (not equal) the student is present).
Russian adjectives are characterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective
appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided into two
groups: qualitative, relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in
Russian. Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun in
the common case (настольная лампа – a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the
Russian lan-ge. There is a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов).
№12. Parts of speech in E&R compare.
Both in RE the vocabulary is classified into parts of
speech. The words are classified into parts of speech according to three main
principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the
Indo-European family of the languages. They have much in common. There are many
words which both in languages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother,
mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages.
But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the same meaning may
belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо; to
sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not enough
to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian language is
syntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the morphological
principle is a great importance when we classify words into parts of speech.
The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical principle and the
combinability of words are of great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall).
The parts of speech in both languages are divided into: notional words and
form-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun, the verb,
the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notional parts of speech. But
the conjunction, the preposition, the particle, the article are formal parts of
speech. So in both languages there are some words, which forward from one into
another parts of speech.
№13. The adverb as a part of speech in E&R
The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER.
Therefore it is characterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The
lexical meaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances
under which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of
an action or of a quality. (He has come late. Он пришел поздно. He is here. Он здесь). These
adverbs express some circumstances under which an action takes place. The
syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs
the syntactical function that of an adverbial modifier. (He is here. Он
здесь. – the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in
the 2 languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv.
Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will come tomorrow.
He speaks fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the adverb to
words of other classes, it is characterized by being connected with the
verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. – verb;
He is very clever. – adj; He acts very cleverly.
- adverb). The adverb may be also connected with the noun, but this
is not a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in the room
opposite. - noun). As to the morphological characteristics a part
of adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-the
most slowly). All the adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 large
groups. They are: Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in their
lexical meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs
are those adverbs, which denote the circumstances under which an action takes
place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative adverbs do not express any
external circumstances. They express the characteristics of an action or a
quality. (slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used in the
function of an adverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.) The
circumstantial adverbs perform the function of adverbial modifiers but manner.
(He was there. He will come tomorrow.) The circumstantial adverbs are always
connected with the verb, they are unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be
connected with verb, adj, adverb.
№14. Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and
The word-combination both in ER is characterized by
the following features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more
notional words (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may
include two or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks
that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one word
only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The
word-combination has practically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination
is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication. If we
say “a black table” we are not quite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore
the w-c has no predicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense,
modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that expresses a
predication. The w-c are usually build on the basis of one notional word. This
notional word is usually called the pivotal word of the main word. The
w-c are usually classified in accordance with their pivotal words. We may have
such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c (a red rose, красная роза);
2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4) adverbial (quite
near, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified into: - free
syntactical comb-s, phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are
such combinations the part of which may be freely replaced (a large table – a
large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood as a whole and its
parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very beginning). A w-c may also
classified according to their relations between the words in them. When we may
have: attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (to read
a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал стоя/сидя).
W-c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional words
(a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consist usually of more than 2 words
(to travel to a big city, a big red rose). W-c may be subordinative (include
pivotal words, or the pivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or
words of they are equal – ножи и вилка, a boy and a girl).
Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER
Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely
used in MoR. Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form
of the pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a
book-he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories
as gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree
with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широкая река, широкое озеро – gender; широкий залив – широкого залива – case; широкий залив – широкие заливы – number). In plural no agreement in gender is
observed (широкие заливы – no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not
agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number (город красив, площадь красива – gender; город красив – города красивы – number). In Plural they agree only in number.
Cardinal-numerals in case (пяти домов, пятью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number
and person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут).
Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER
Government is a variety of syntactical connection in
accordance with which the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the
grammatical meaning of the pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In
English government is used to join together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually
is used in the Possessive Case. (A boy’s book – boys’ books, A day’s holiday,
an hour’s absence). Government is used in verbal combinations where the object
is expressed by a personal pronoun (Believe me, help him).
Prepositional government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him, to
depend upon him). The verb governments through the preposition. In MoR
governing words may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by a noun (крыло птицы); 2) by an adjective (склонный
к шуткам); 3) by a numeral (двадцать
деревьев); 4) by a pronoun (кто-то
из братьев); 5) by an Infinitive (поливать
улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от
солнца). A noun or a noun-equivalent usually expresses
governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение к старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing
word belongs to, government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здания – gen. case), adjectival (интересный
для зрителя – gen. case with a prep.), adverbial (делать весело, ему приятно), verbal (осматривать здание – accusative case, доверить
врагу – dative case).
Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER
Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when
the dependence of one word upon another is expressed not morphologically but
semantically (My room-my rooms, a small room-small rooms). In MoR the mostly spread
adjoining is when an adverb is subordinated. Pivotal words may be expressed by
different parts of speech:
by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан),
by a stative (вполне возможно),
by an adjective (почти черный),
by an adverb (очень слабо),
by a noun (езда шагом).
The Infinitive as well may be subordinated (пошел заниматься, жаль расставаться). Sometimes деепричастие may be subordinated (разговаривая смотрел на собеседника).
№18. The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of word
connection in the sentence.
Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is
an independent part of grammar. It studies word-combinations and sentences. The
main features of a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete thought while
w-c does not. (Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has a
definite intonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while the w-c
consists of two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in a finite form (Cf:
the weather is nice, the nice weather); 4) the sentence expresses predication
that is the relation between what is said to reality.
The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable and
so on. The action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future.
The w-c in a sentence may be connected in 3 ways: - the lexical way, the
grammatical and the phonetical way.
The lexical way is the connection of words according
to their lexical meaning (мальчик читать книга – boy read book). Of course, the lexical way is not
enough. The given sentences are understandable but they are not expressed
grammatically. We don’t know the time of an action; we don’t know the type of
the sentence. So, words in a sentence must be connected grammatically. There
are 3 main grammatical ways of word connection in a sentence: 1) the forms of
words, 2) the form-words and 3) the word order.
1.The forms of words are not typical of the English
language, because the morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical
of the Russian language. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, Я читаю, ты
2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It
is also wider spread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into: 1) the
determinative form-words (we refer: in English – articles and particles while
in Russian – only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer
prepositions and conjunctions).
3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In
MoR the word-order in the sentence is rather free. While in English the first
place is usually occupied by the subject, the second place is occupied by the
Predicate, the third place – by the object, the fourth place – by the adverbial
modifier. (Ann sees John - Аня видит Джона. John sees Ann (not equal) Джона видит Аня).
№19. Classification sentences according to the type of communication in
Both in English and in Russian sentences may be
classified according to: 1) types of communication and 2) structure.
According to the types of communication sentence in
both languages are divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3)
A Declarative sentence states a fact in the
affirmative or negative form. There is a great difference between English and
Russian negative sentences. An English sentence may have only one negation
while the Russian sentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. - Никто не опоздал.) An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In
English there are four winds of questions: general, special, alternative and
disjunctive. (Do you want…?, Where do you want…?, Do you want …or…?, You want…,
don’t you?). Russian interrogative sentence may be divided into 2 groups: 1)
Interrogative sentence having no interrogative words, sometimes they may
contain such particles as ведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли, and etc. In such cases they differ from declarative
sentence in intonation. (Инженер
поехал в Москву? Его здесь нет? Разве он вам писал? Неужели он ушел?); 2) Interrogative sentences having interrogative
words, such as кто, что, куда, откуда, почему (Кто пришел? Что вы читаете?). Special attention must be paid to the indirect questions
the rules of sequence of tenses must be observed.
Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to do
something. They express a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand,
a call and so on. Declarative, interrogative and imperative sentences may be
exclamatory when they express a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger,
etc). (What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!)
(Москва как много в этом звуке…).
№20. Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare.
According to the structure sentences are divided into:
two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two
members: the subject and the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member
sentence may be: complete and incomplete 2 member sentences. The complete has
both the subject and the predicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of
the principle parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood
from the sentence. Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are you going?
– To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually met in colloquial speech and
dialogues. A one-member sentence is a sentence, which has only one
member, which is neither the subject nor the predicate. One member makes the
sentence complete. One-member sentences are generally used in description and
in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by
a noun and the sentence is called nominal. (Dusk-of the summer night. Зима, крестьянин торжествует). A simple
sentence may be extended (has both the principle parts of the sentence and the
secondary parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) and unextended (has only the
subject and the predicate). Sentences in both languages may be composite.
Composite sentences are divided into: compound and complex. A compound is a
sentence which consist of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. (The
darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighting. Прозрачны лес один чернеет…). A complex sentence consist of a principal clause and
one or more subordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set out from the
hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I am
going is unknown), object, predicative (with link-verb), attributive,