Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts
Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts
1. Theoretical issues of translation
1.1 Development of translation notion in linguistics
1.2 Equivalence of translation
1.3 Types of translation
1.4 Pragmatics of translation
2. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical
2.1 The characteristic of the scientific and technical language
2.2 Analysis of terminology in scientific-technical style
At present time
there is a great necessity to emphasize scientific-technical translation not
only as a special kind of translation activity and special theory that
investigates this kind of activity but as to assign scientific-technical
translation a status of independent applied science. From the linguistic
viewpoint peculiarities of scientific-technical are spread on its stylistics,
grammar and lexics. The main task of scientific-technical translation is a
possibly clear and precise bringing of the information to the reader. This can
be achived by logical interpretation of actual material without explicit
emotionality. The style of scientific-technical materials can be identified as
texts reveal a great number of grammar peculiarities. The most typical lexical
feature of scientific-technical materials is terms and terminology saturation
as well as presence of lexical structures and acronyms. A special place in such
materials are the texts oriented not only for this group language speakers but
for representatives of a certain professional group with certain
The aim of this
term paper is devoted to peculiarities of scientific-technical translation.
tasks were set up to identify translation peculiarities of technical materials:
1. Reveal and
describe common linguistic basis of translation, identify what peculiarities of
language systems and functions are the foundations of translation process.
main kinds of translation activity.
peculiarities of scientific-technical materials.
specific English terminology required for professional translation.
grammatical and lexical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts.
The object of
this research is some scientific-technical texts representing manuals for
electric devices. The subject of this research is the translation of scientifi-technical
consists of introduction, two chapters and conclusion. It is also provided with
introduction explains the urgency of the research theme, its theoretical and
practical value, it identifies the object, subject, aim and tasks of the work.
chapter of this research is devoted to the review of theoretical issues of
translation, classification of translation and description of certain kinds of
translation as well as types of texts being translated.
chapter ivestigates scientific-technical terminology, morphological structure
of terms (simple, compound, term phrases), it analyses the main approaches of
their translation into English (use of equvalents, analogues, calking and
transliteration), structure of scientific-technical terms, translation of full
items, acronyms, company items and difficulties related to structure
differences of compared languages.
the research. The aim achivement of the research and implementation of the set
up tasks outlines the need in a number of theoretical and emperical methods of
research (theoretical research, concretization, modelling, studying of specific
literature, manuals, dictionaries).
value of the research results. The ivestigation, detalization of the issues
studied, theoretical value of the received results leads to the conclusion that
this research finds out the necessity to emphasize scientific-technical
translation as an independent applied science.
The results of
the research are submitted in the conclusion of the work.
the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production,
in another language, of an equivalent text that communicates the same message.
Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context,
the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their
idioms and the like. Consequently, as has been recognized at least since the
time of the translator Martin Luther, one translates best into the language
that one knows best. Traditionally translation has been a human activity,
though attempts have been made to computerize or otherwise automate the
translation of natural-language texts (machine translation) or to use computers
as an aid to translation (computer-assisted translation). [1; 48] Perhaps the
most common misconception about translation is that there exists a simple
“word-for-word” relation between any two languages, and that translation is
therefore a straightforward and mechanical process. On the contrary, historical
differences between languages often dictate differences of expression. Hence,
source and target texts may differ significantly in length. In addition,
translation is always fraught with uncertainties as well as the potential for
inadvertent “spilling over” of idioms and usages from one language into the
other, producing linguistic hybrids, for example, "Franglais"
(French-English), "Spanglish" (Spanish-English) and
"Poglish" (Polish-English). [2; 31]
of technical texts (manuals, instructions, etc). More specifically, texts that
contain a high amount of terminology, that is, words or expressions that are
used (almost) only within a specific field, or that describe that field in a
great deal of detail. The translation of scientific research papers, abstracts,
conference proceedings, and other publications from one language into another.
The specialized technical vocabulary used by researchers in each discipline
demand that the translator of scientific texts have technical as well as
problems that modern linguistics studies an important role is played by
studying of lingustic aspects of cross-language speaking activity that is
called translation or translating activity. Translation is an ancient human’s
activity. Due to groups of people appeared in the history of mankind had
different languages the bilinguals became urgent as they helped communication
between groups with different languages. Then writing appeared and along with
oral interpreters written translators became urgent as well. They translated
different texts of official, religious and business issues. From its very
beginning translation played a significant social function allowing people of
different languages communicate. Spreading of written translations gave people
access to cultural achivements of other people and it made interacting and
intersaturation of literatures and cultures feasible. Knowledge of foreign
languages allows reading books originally written in those languages [3; 562].
theoreticals of translation were the translators themselves who tried to
generalize their own experience. Translators of ancient world discussed the
issue of proximity degree to the source text. In early Bible translations or
translations of other materials that were considered to be sacral and exemplary
we can find word for word approach of the source text interpretation that
sometimes lead to partly or even full misunderstanding of translations. That is
why later translators tried theoretically approve the right of translator for
reasonable variety in subject to the source text that meant the interpretation
of meaning and the impression of the source text instead of word for word
coping [4; 124].
of scientific theory of translation started to be develped in the middle of
XXth century when the problematics of translating appeared to be urgent amongst
linguists. Before that period it was thought that translation is not the issue
of linguistic range. Translators themselves considered linguistic aspects to be
non-significant but totally technical role. The translator was supposed to be
fluent both in source and target languages but knowledge of the language was
just a preliminary condition and did not cover its meaning.
By the middle
of XXth century the attitude to translation activity had changed and its
systematic studying commenced. During this period the translation of political,
commercial, scientific-technical and other texts was of great priority. In
those types of translation the features of individual writer’s style were not
important. Due to this fact more and more attention was paid to the main
difficulties of translation related to different structures and functioning of
languages in this process.
The meaning of
language units was emphasized by more precise requirements for the translation.
During the translation of such materials it was not enough to get “general”
translation as the translation was supposed to provide information transmission
in all details up to the meaning of single words. It was required to identify
linguistic meaning of this process and what factors identified it and what
range they have for information transmiting. [4,5; 37,12]
So, there are always two texts during translation,
and one of them is initial and is created independently on the second one, and
the second text is created on the basis of the first one with the help of some
certain operations - the inter language transformations. The first text is
called “the text of original"; the second text is called “the text of
translation". The language of the text of original is called “ the source
language” (SL). The language of the text of translation is called “ the target
language” (TL). [10; 97]
We need to define the most important thing: why
do we consider that the text of translation is equivalent to the text of
original? For example, why do we speak that the Russian sentence “Мой брат
живет в Лондоне" is the translation of the English sentence “My brother lives
in London", while the Russian sentence “Я учусь в университете” is not the
translation of the English sentence given above - to say in other words - is
not equivalent to it? Obviously, the replacement of the text in one language by
the text in the other language is not always the translation. The same idea can
be expressed in the other way: the process of translation or the inter language
transformation is realised not arbitrary, but with the help of some certain
rules, in some strict frameworks. And if we do not observe this rules we have
already no rights to speak about translation. To have the rights to be called
the translation, the text on TL should contain in it something that the text on
SL contains. Or else, while replacing the text on SL by the text on TL it is
necessary to keep some certain invariant; the measure of keeping of this
invariant defines by itself the measure of the equivalence of the text of
translation to the text of original. So, first of all, it is necessary to
define what is the invariant in the process of translation, that is in the
process of transformation of the text on SL in the text on TL. [10; 176]
At the decision of this problem it is necessary
to take in account the following. The process of translation directly depends
on bilateral character of a mark, as it is called in a mark systems science -
semiotics - It means that any mark can be characterised from two sides, or
plans the plan of expression or form and the plan of contents or meaning. It is
known that the language is a specific mark system, that is why the units of
language are also characterised by the presence of two plans, both form and
meaning. Thus the main role for translation is played by that fact that
different languages contain different units and this units differ from each
other in the way of expression, that is by the form, but they are similar in
the way of the contents, that is by the meaning. For example, the English word
"brother" differs from Russian word “брат" in the way of the
expression, but coincides with it in the way of the contents, that is has the
same meaning. [11; 312]
The English word "brother" has not only
the meaning “брат" but also some meanings expressed in Russian language by
the words “собрат", “земляк", “коллега”, “приятель" etc. And the
Russian word “брат" in the combination “двоюродный брат” corresponds not
to the English word "brother", but to the word "cousin",
which means not only “двоюродный брат” but also “двоюродная сестра". This
phenomenon, namely, the incomplete concurrence of systems of meanings of units
in different languages, complicates the process translation. Taking in account
this fact we can say, that if we replace the English word "brother"
by the Russian word “брат", the process of translation takes place here,
as these words, differing in the way of expression, that is by the form,
coincide or are equivalent in the way of the contents, that is by the meaning.
Actually, however, as the minimal text is the sentence, the process of
translation is always realised in the limits of minimum one sentence. And in
the sentence, as a rule, the discrepancy between the units of different
languages in the way of the contents is eliminated. Proceeding from this, we
can give now the following definition of the translation:
is the process of transformation of the speech product in one language into the
speech product in the other language by keeping the constant plan of the
contents, that is the meanings.
About “ the keeping of the constant plan of the
contents” it is possible to speak only in the relative, but not in the absolute
sense. During the inter language transformation some losses are inevitable,
that is the incomplete transference of meanings, expressed by the text of the
original, is taking place. [10; 29]
So, the text of translation can never be complete
and absolute equivalent of the text of original; the task of the interpreter is
to make this equivalence as complete as it is possible, that is to achieve the
minimum of losses. It means, that one of the tasks of the theory of translation
is the establishment of the order of transference of meanings. Taking into
account that there are various types of meanings, it is necessary to establish
which of them have the advantages during the transference in the process of
translation, and which of them it is possible “to endow" so that the
semantic losses would be minimal while translating.
To finish the consideration of the question about
the essence of translation, it is necessary to answer one question yet. This
question arises from the definition of translation equivalence based on the
keeping of the constant plan of the contents, that is the meaning, given above.
It was already marked that the opportunity of keeping of plan of the contents,
that is the invariance of meanings while translating, assumes that in the
different languages there are some units that are similar in the way of
The divergence in the semantic systems of
different languages is a certainty fact and it is the source of numerous
difficulties arising before the interpreter in the process of translation.
That is why, many researchers consider that the
equivalence of the original and the translation is not based on the identity of
expressed meanings. From the numerous statements on this theme we shall quote
only one, belonging to the English theorist of translation J. Ketford: “ … The
opinion that the text on SL and the text on TL “have the same meaning" or
that there is “a carry of meaning" while translating, have no bases. From
our point of view, the meaning is the property of the certain language. The
text on SL have the meaning peculiar to TL; for example, the Russian text has
Russian meaning, and the English text, that is the equivalent of it, has the
English meaning. [12; 120]
For the benefit of translation it is possible to
state the following arguments:
In the system of meanings of any language the
results of human experience are embodied, that is the knowledge that the man
receives about the objectively existing reality.
In any language, the system of language meanings
reflects the whole external world of the man, and his own internal world too,
that is the whole practical experience of the collective, speaking the given
language, is fixed. As the reality, environmental different language collectives,
has much more than common features, than distinguishes, so the meanings of
different languages coincide in a much more degree, than they miss. The other
thing is that these meanings (the units of sense or “semes’) are differently
combined, grouped and expressed in different languages: but it concerns already
not to the plan of the contents but to the plan of the language expression.
The greatest difficulties during translation
arise when the situation described in the text on
SL is absent in the experience of language
collective - the carrier of TL, otherwise, when in the initial text the
so-called “realities” are described, that is different subjects and phenomena
specific to the given people or the given country.
The ability to describe new unfamiliar situations
is the integral property of any language; and this property makes what we speak
about to be possible.
The translation was determined above as the
process of transformation of speech product in one language into the speech
product in the other language. Thus, the interpreter deals not with the
languages as the systems, but with the speech products, that is with the texts.
Those semantic divergences, that is in the meanings, which we are talking
about, concern, first of all, to systems of different languages; in the speech
these divergences very often are neutralised, erased, brought to nothing.
The concrete distribution of elementary units of
sense (“semes" or semantic units) on separate words, word combinations or
sentences of the given text is defined by the numerous and complex factors.
And, as a rule, it does not coincide in the text on SL and text on TL. But it
concerns not to the plan of the contents, but to the plan of expression and is
not the infringement of a principle of semantic equivalence of the texts of
original and the text of translation. [15; 65]
Last give an example to prove the fact given
above. In the story of the known English writer S. Moem “A Casual Affair "
we can see the following sentence: " He'd always been so spruce and smart;
he was shabby and unwashed and wild-eyed ". This is the Russian variant of this sentence: "Прежде он был
таким щеголем, таким элегантным, а теперь бродил по улицам Сингапура грязный, в
лохмотьях, с одичалым взглядом. (translation of Litvinova M) On the first sight the Russian text do not
seems to be the equivalent to the English one: there are such words as
"прежде, а теперь, бродил по улицам Сингапура" in it, which have not
the direct conformities in the text of original. But really, the semantic
equivalence is available here, though here are no verbal equivalence, of
course. The thing is that the Russian words “прежде" and “а теперь”
transfer the meanings, which are expressed not by the words, but by the
grammatical forms in the English text: the opposition of the forms of the verb
"to be" -“had been” and “was” expresses that the first event is
taking place before the second one, which has the logical expression through
adverbs of time in Russian language. [10; 90]
Words “бродил по улицам Сингапура" transfer
the semantic information, which the initial English text contains too, but in
one of the previous sentences, not in the given sentence (He didn't been the
job in Sumatra long and he was back again in Singapore). So, the semantic equivalence
is provided not between the separate words and even not between the separate
sentences here, but between the whole text on SL and the whole text on TL as a
whole. [12; 37]
So, the semantic divergences between the
languages can not serve as the insuperable obstacle for the translation, by
virtue of that circumstance, that the translation deals with the languages not
as the abstract systems, but with the concrete speech products (texts). And in
their limits there is the complex interlacing and interaction of qualitatively
diverse language means being the expressions of meanings - of words,
grammatical forms, and "super signments" means, transmitting this or
that semantic information together. That semantic equivalence of the texts of
the original and the text of translation, which we regard as the necessary
condition of the process of translation, exists not between the separate
elements of these texts, but between the texts as a whole. And inside the given
text the numerous regroupings, rearrangement and redistribution of separate
elements are not only allowed, but frequently they are simply inevitable,
(" translation transformations "). So, while translating, there is a
strict rule - the principle of submission of elements to the whole, of the
lowest units to the highest. [16; 176]
basic characteristics of translation can be observed in all translation events,
different types of translation can be singled out depending on the predominant
communicative function of the source text or the form of speech involved in the
translation process. Thus we can distinguish between literary and informative
translation, on the one hand, and between written and oral translation (or
interpretation), on the other hand. [18; 251]
translation deals with literary texts, i. e. works of fiction or poetry whose
main function is to make an emotional or aesthetic impression upon the reader.
Their communicative value depends, first and foremost, on their artistic
quality and the translator's primary task is to reproduce this quality in
translation is rendering into the target language non-literary texts, the main
purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader.
However, if the source text is of some length, its translation can be listed as
literary or informative only as an approximation. A literary text may, in fact,
include some parts of purely informative character. Contrariwise, informative
translation may comprise some elements aimed at achieving an aesthetic effect.
Within each group further gradations can be made to bring out more specific
problems in literary or informative translation. [2,7; 34,97]
are known to fall into a number of genres. Literary translations may be
subdivided in the same way, as each genre calls for a specific arrangement and
makes use of specific artistic means to impress the reader. Translators of
prose, poetry or plays have their own problems. Each of these forms of literary
activities comprises a number of subgenres and the translator may specialize in
one or some of them in accordance with his talents and experience. The
particular tasks inherent in the translation of literary works of each genre
are more literary than linguistic. The great challenge to the translator is to
combine the maximum equivalence and the high literary merit. [5,10; 34,49]
of a belles-lettres text is expected to make a careful study of the literary
trend the text belongs to, the other works of the same author, the
peculiarities of his individual style and manner and sn on. This involves both
linguistic considerations and skill in literary criticism. A good literary
translator must be a versatile scholar and a talented writer or poet.
A number of
subdivisions can be also suggested for informative translations, though the
principles of classification here are somewhat different. Here we may single
out translations of scientific and technical texts, of newspaper materials, of
official papers and some other types of texts such as public speeches,
political and propaganda materials, advertisements, etc., which are, so to
speak, intermediate, in that there is a certain balance between the expressive
and referential functions, between reasoning and emotional appeal. [13; 21]
scientific and technical materials has a most important role to play in our age
of the revolutionary technical progress. There is hardly a translator or an
interpreter today who has not to deal with technical matters. Even the
"purely" literary translator often comes across highly technical
stuff in works of fiction or even in poetry. An in-depth theoretical study of
the specific features of technical translation is an urgent task of translation
linguistics while training of technical translators is a major practical
translation the main goal is to identify the situation described in the
original. The predominance of the referential function is a great challenge to
the translator who must have a good command of the technical terms and a
sufficient understanding of the subject matter to be able to give an adequate
description of the situation even if this is not fully achieved in the
original. The technical translator is also expected to observe the stylistic
requirements of scientific and technical materials to make text acceptable to
Some types of
texts can be identified not so much by their positive distinctive features as
by the difference in their functional characteristics in the two languages.
English newspaper reports differ greatly from their Russian counterparts due to
the frequent use of colloquial, slang and vulgar elements, various paraphrases,
eye-catching headlines, etc. [17; 58]
translator finds in a newspaper text the headline "Minister bares his
teeth on fluoridation" which just means that this minister has taken a
resolute stand on the matter, he will think twice before referring to the
minister's teeth in the Russian translation. He would rather use a less
expressive way of putting it to avoid infringement upon the accepted norms of
the Russian newspaper style.
technical and newspaper materials it may be expedient to single out translation
of official diplomatic papers as a separate type of informative translation.
These texts make a category of their own because of the specific requirements
to the quality of their translations. Such translations are often accepted as
authentic official texts on a par with the originals. They are important
documents every word of which must be carefully chosen as a matter of
principle. That makes the translator very particular about every little
meaningful element of the original which he scrupulously reproduces in his
translation. This scrupulous imitation of the original results sometimes in the
translator more readily erring in literality than risking to leave out even an
insignificant element of the original contents.
(or publicistic) texts dealing with social or political matters are sometimes
singled out among other informative materials because they may feature elements
more commonly used in literary text (metaphors, similes and other stylistic
devices) which cannot but influence the translator's strategy. More often,
however, they are regarded as a kind of newspaper materials (periodicals).
There are also
some minor groups of texts that can be considered separately because of the
specific problems their translation poses to the translator. They are film
scripts, comic strips, commercial advertisements and the like. In dubbing a
film the translator is limited in his choice of variants by the necessity to
fit the pronunciation of the translated words to the movement of the actor's
captions in a comic strip, the translator will have to consider the numerous
allusions to the facts well-known to the regular readers of comics but less
familiar to the Russian readers. And in dealing with commercial advertisements
he must bear in mind that their sole purpose is to win over the prospective
customers. Since the text of translation will deal with quite a different kind
of people than the original advertisement was meant for, there is the problem of
achieving the same pragmatic effect by introducing the necessary changes in the
message. Though the present manual is concerned with the problems of written
translation from English into Russian, some remarks should be made about the
obvious classification of translations as written or oral. As the names
suggest, in written translation the source text is in written form, as is the
target text. In oral translation or interpretation the interpreter listens to
the oral presentation of the original and translates it as an oral message in
TL. As a result, in the first case the Receptor of the translation can read it
while in the second case he hears it.
There are also
some intermediate types. The interpreter rendering his translation by word of
mouth may have the text of the original in front of him and translate it “at
sight". A written translation can be made of the original recorded on the
magnetic tape that can be replayed as many times as is necessary for the
translator to grasp the original meaning. The translator can dictate his “at
sight" translation of a written text to the typist or a short-hand writer
with TR getting the translation in written form. [20; 54]
These are all,
however, modifications of the two main types of translation. The line of
demarcation between written and oral translation is drawn not only because of
their forms but also because of the sets of conditions in which the process
takes place. The first is continuous, the other momentary. In written
translation the original can be read and re-read as many times as the
translator may need or like. The same goes for the final product. The
translator can re-read his translation, compare it to the original, make the
necessary corrections or start his work all over again. He can come back to the
preceding part of the original or get the information he needs from the
subsequent messages. These are most favourable conditions and here we can
expect the best performance and the highest level of equivalence. That is why
in theoretical discussions we have usually examples from written translations
where the translating process can be observed in all its aspects.
of oral translation impose a number of important restrictions on the
translator's performance. Here the interpreter receives a fragment of the
original only once and for a short period of time. His translation is also a
one-time act with no possibility of any return to the original or any
subsequent corrections. This creates additional problems and the users have
sometimes; to be content with a lower level of equivalence. [19; 32]
There are two
main kinds of oral translation - consecutive and simultaneous. In consecutive
translation the translating starts after the original speech or some part of it
has been completed. Here the interpreter's strategy and the final results
depend, to a great extent, on the length of the segment to be translated. If
the segment is just a sentence or two the interpreter closely follows the
original speech. As often as not, however, the interpreter is expected to
translate a long speech which has lasted for scores of minutes or even longer.
In this case he has to remember a great number of messages and keep them in
mind until he begins his translation. To make this possible the interpreter has
to take notes of the original messages, various systems of notation having been
suggested for the purpose. The study of, and practice in, such notation is the
integral part of the interpreter's training as are special exercises to develop
his memory. 
interpreter is set a time limit to give his rendering, which means that he will
have to reduce his translation considerably, selecting and reproducing the most
important parts of the original and dispensing with the rest.
the ability to make a judgement on the relative value of various messages and
to generalize or compress the received information. The interpreter must
obviously be a good and quickwitted thinker.
interpretation the interpreter is supposed to be able to give his translation
while the speaker is uttering the original message. This can be achieved with a
special radio or telephone-type equipment. The interpreter receives the
original speech through his earphones and simultaneously talks into the
microphone which transmits his translation to the listeners. This type of
translation involves a number of psycholinguistic problems, both of theoretical
and practical nature.
language are related to certain referents which they designate and to other
words of the same language with which they make up syntactic units. These
relationships are called semantic and syntactic, respectively. Words are also
related to the people who use them. To the users of the language its words are
not just indifferent, unemotional labels of objects or ideas. The people
develop a certain attitude to the words they use. Some of the words acquire
definite implications, they evoke a positive or negative response, they are
associated with certain theories, beliefs, likes or dislikes. There are
"noble" words like "honour, dignity, freedom", etc. and
"low" words Шее "infamy, cowardice, betrayal". Words can be
nice or ugly, attractive or repulsive. Such relationships between the word and
its users are called "pragmatic". [12; 28]
implications of a word are an important part of its meaning that produces a
certain effect upon the Receptor. Of even greater significance is the pragmatic
aspect of speech units. Every act of speech communication is meant for a
certain Receptor, it is aimed at producing a certain effect upon him. In this
respect any communication is an exercise in pragmatics.
pragmatic effect plays such an important part in communication, its
preservation in translation is the primary concern of the translator, though it
is by no means an easy task. The pragmatic aspect of translation involves a
number of difficult problems.
To begin with,
the pragmatics of the original text cannot be as a rule directly reproduced in
translation but often require important changes in the transmitted message.
Correlated words in different languages may produce dissimilar effect upon the
users. An "ambition" in English is just the name of a quality which may
evoke any kind of response - positive, negative or neutral. Its Russian
counterpart "амбиция" is definitely not a nice word. Thus, the phrase
'The voters put an end to the general's political ambitions" can be
translated as "Избиратели положили конец политическим амбициям
генерала", retaining the negative implication of the original, but if the
implication were positive the translator would not make use of the derogatory
term. The sentence 'The boy's ambition was to become a pilot" will be translated
as "Мечтой мальчика было стать летчиком".
Such words as
"idealism" or "nationalism" often have a positive effect in
the English text and are rendered into Russian not as "идеализм" or
"национализм" but as "служение идеалам, бескорыстие" and "национальное
самосознание, национальные интересы", respectively. [15; 64]
consider not just separate words but a phrase or number of phrases in a text,
the problem becomes more complicated. The communicative effect of a speech unit
does not depend on the meaning of its components alone, but involves
considerations of the situational context and the previous experience. A report
that John has run a hundred metres in 9 seconds will pass unnoticed by some
people and create a sensation with others who happen to know that it is a
wonderful record-breaking achievement.
Here again, a
great role is played by differences in the historical and cultural backgrounds
of different language communities, in their customs and living conditions. It
stands to reason that the natives of a tropical island can hardly be impressed
by the statement that something is "as white as snow". The reported
"cooling" in the relations between two friends may be understood as a
welcome development by the people who live in a very hot climate.
imperative, therefore, that translation should involve a kind of pragmatic
adaptation to provide for the preservation of the original communicative
effect. This adaptation must ensure that the text of translation conveys the
same attitude to the reported facts as does the original text. It goes without
saying that in an adequate translation the comical should not be replaced by
the tragical or a praise turned into a censure.
adaptation of the translation must also see to it that TR understands the
implications of the message and is aware of its figurative or situational
meaning. A phrase like "Smith made another touchdown in three
minutes" refers to a situation which does not mean anything to a Russian
Receptor who does not know anything about the rules of American football. When
the English original just refers to the First Amendment, the Russian
translation should make it more explicit by speaking about the First Amendment
to the U. S. Constitution; otherwise TR will not understand what it is all
about. [12; 97]
It is obvious
that there can be no equivalence if the original text is clear and unequivocal
while its translation is obscure and hard to understand.
problem of equivalence at different levels, we have emphasized the necessity of
making the translation as understandable and intelligible as the original text
is. We have also taken care to include in the overall meaning of the text all
its emotional, figurative and associative implications. The pragmatic
adaptation of this kind is an integral part of translation procedures which
ensure the necessary level of equivalence.
of the text, which are linguistically relevant and depend on the relationships
between the linguistic signs and language users, are part of the contents of
the text. It is a meaningful element whose preservation in translation is
desirable at any level of equivalence. It is reproduced in translation if TR
gets the whole information about the pragmatic aspects of the original text and
the pragmatics of the original text are just as accessible and understandable
to him as they are to SR. This does not imply that he will be actually
influenced by this information or react to it in the same way. [11; 55]
Apart from the
pragmatics of linguistic signs, there are also the pragmatics of individual
speech acts. In a concrete act of speech the Source has to do with the specific
Receptor upon whom he tries to produce the desired effect, and from whom he
would like to elicit the desired reaction.
type of pragmatics is also present in translation events. A translation event
is a kind of speech act and it is performed with a certain pragmatic purpose as
well. But here we are confronted with a more complicated process than in
event is pragmatically oriented in two directions. On the one hand, it is
translation which means that its primary purpose is to give the closest
possible approximation to the original text. This orientation towards a foreign
text is one aspect of its pragmatics. [11; 59]
But on the
other hand, a translation event is a concrete speech act in the target
language. Therefore, it is not just an act of interlingual communication
between the Source and TR, but also an act of speech communication between the
Translator and TR. This involves two important implications. First, a
translation event may be pragmatically oriented toward a concrete TR, and,
second, it is the result of the activities of a concrete translator, who may
have some additional pragmatic motivation, may pursue some aims beside and
beyond the true reproduction of the original text.
As long as
translation is not just an exercise in producing an equivalent text in another
language but a pragmatic act under specific circumstances, its results can be
assessed both in terms of its loyalty to the original and its ability to
achieve the purpose for which it has been undertaken. This necessitates the
introduction of the concept of the "pragmatic value" in translation,
which assesses its success in achieving this pragmatic super-purpose.
As has been
pointed out, the additional pragmatic goal of the translation event may depend
either on the particular type of TR or on the translator's designs beyond his
call of duty as a no-nonsense transmitter of the original message.
The users of
the translation often make judgements of its quality exclusively on its merits
as an instrument in achieving some specific aim. If in doing it, the
translation departs from the original text, so much the worse for the latter.
written for adults are translated for children's reading with appropriate
alterations made in the course of translation. Presumably any text should be
differently translated depending on whether it is for experts or laymen, for
staging or screening, and so on. [11; 64]
As to the
specific aims pursued by the translator, they may also bring about considerable
changes in the resulting text with no direct bearing on the original. Each
translation is made in a certain pragmatic or social context, and its results
are used for a number of purposes. The translator is assigned his task and paid
for it by the people for whom his work is not an end in itself but an
instrument for achieving some other ends. Aware of this, the translator tries
to make his work meet these "extra-translational" requirements,
introducing appropriate changes in the text of translation. Sometimes these
changes are prompted by the desire to produce a certain effect on the
Receptors, which has already been mentioned.
goal, which makes the translator modify the resulting text, often means that,
for all practical purposes, he assumes an additional role and is no longer just
a translator. He may set himself some propaganda or educational task, he may be
particularly interested in some part of the original and wants to make a
special emphasis on it, he may try to impart to the Receptor his own feelings
about the Source or the event described in the original. In pursuance of his
plans the translator may try to simplify, abridge or modify the original
message, deliberately reducing the degree of equivalence in his translation.
It is clear
that such cases go far beyond the inherent aspects of translation and it is not
the task of the translation theory to analyse or pass a judgement on them. But
the translator should be aware of this possibility for it will have an impact
on his strategy.
In many types
of translation any attempt by the translator to modify his text for some
extra-translational purpose will be considered unprofessional conduct and
severely condemned. But there are also some other types of translation where
particular aspects of equivalence are of little interest and often disregarded.
When a book is
translated with a view to subsequent publication in another country, it may be
adapted or abridged to meet the country's stan dards for printed matter. The
translator may omit parts of the book or some descriptions considered too
obscene or naturalistic for publication in his country, though permissible in
In technical or
other informative translations the translator or his employers may be
interested in getting the gist of the contents or the most important or novel
part of it, which may involve leaving out certain details or a combination of
translation with brief accounts of less important parts of the original. A most
common feature of such translations is neglect of the stylistic and structural
peculiarities of the original. In this case translation often borders on
retelling or precis writing.
instance is consecutive interpretation where the interpreter is often set a
time limit within which he is expected to report his translation no matter how
long the original speech may have been. This implies selection,
generalizations, and cutting through repetitions, incidental digressions,
occasional slips or excessive embellishments.
It is obvious
that in all similar cases the differences which can be revealed between the
original text and its translation should not be ascribed to the translator's inefficiency
or detract from the quality of his work. The pragmatic value of such
translations clearly compensates for their lack of equivalence. Evidently there
are different types of translation serving different purposes.
typology of texts.
By means of
analysis the translator is to identify what type of texts needs to be
translated. The same as during the asessment of translation it is rrequired to
have a clear picture of the text type to avoid incorrect charateristics of text
asessment. Typology of the texts that complies with translation process and
spread for all types of texts is the reason of correct asessment of
translation. There is a number of tries to develop such a typology of texts
that will allow to make sonclusions regarding the principles of translation or
regarding the choice of special methods of translation. This fact reveals the
understanding that the methods of translation are not only identifird by
readers group and specification of translation.
One of the visible achievements of modern
linguistics is the impetuous development of its new branch - the linguistics of
the text - within last decades. This new linguistic discipline, the object of
which is the coherent text - the completed sequence of the statements, united
with each other by semantic connections, has put before itself a task to state
the essence of these connections and ways of their realization, to find out the
system of grammatical categories of the text with its substantial and formal
units, to describe the essence and organization of conditions of the human communication
using the material of the text.
From this brief list of the purposes and tasks of
the new trends its affinity to the theory of translation becomes clear. [12;
The connection between linguistics of the text
standing on the early stage of its development, and the theory of translation,
first noticed Yuriy Nida. On his opinion, the theory of translation should take
into account some common attributes of the texts, which he has named " the
universals of discourse ". To them belong:
1). Various ways of marking of the beginning and
the end of the text;
2). Ways of marking of transitions between
internal divisions of the coherent text;
3). Temporary connection;
4). Spatial connections;
5). Logic relations (for example, the reason and
6). Identification of discourse' participants;
7). Various means of apportionment of this or
that elements for focusing on them the attention or for the emphasis;
8). Author involvement, that is, his position and
his point of view. [15; 105]
The markers of the beginning and the end of the
text include the standard formulas such as " once upon a time " (жили
были) and " they lived happily ever after " (и стали они жить
поживать, добра наживать).
The markers of internal transitions are the
traditional ways of introduction of new divisions of the text such as “on the
other hand, however... ” (однако, с
другой стороны), “ then all of a sudden..." (и вдруг), “in contrast with all this”
(в отличие от всего этого) еtc.
To the markers of the temporary relations belong
prepositions of time, the temporary phrases such as “ the next morning ” (на
следующее утро), “all that day ” (весь день), relative times such as Future
Perfect and Past Perfect, sequence of tenses, e. g. “he said he came”, a
sequence of events reflected by the order of words.
Among markers of the spatial relations there are
spatial prepositions such as “long way off" (далеко-далеко), “ ten miles
long” (длиной в десять миль), “it's a day's trip” (езды туда целый день).
Logic relations are marked with the help of
modifying sentence adverbs, such as “moreover" (более), “ therefore"
(поэтому), “ nevertheless” (тем не менее); conjunctions introducing subordinate
clauses “if", “although", “because"; verbal forms (adverbial,
gerundial), depending on the verb expressing the main event; lexical units,
expressing the logic relation, such as “ he concluded" (он пришел к
выводу), “he argued” (он возразил).
The markers of
the consecutive indication on the same reviewer include personal pronouns (he,
she, they), demonstrative pronouns (this, that) and synonyms (dog, animal, pet,
Participants and events can be put in front (to
the “ linguistic proscenium”) or they can be removed on a background. We use
the complex syntactic structure for this purpose, the hierarchy, with the help
of which we mark a place of the participants and events in a described
Participation of the author can be of two types -
autobiographical (real or fictitious), the marker of which is the first person
pronoun, and estimating, the marker of which are the estimating lexical units:
“this was an ugly scene" (это была безобразная сцена).
Characterizing pointed features as “universals of
discourse”, Yuriy Nida, at the same time, points out that in the different
languages various means are used for their expression. [16; 79]
Thus, for translation it is obviously important,
how “universals of discourse" are realized in contacting with each other
languages during translation and the results of it for the structuring of the
final text. Barhudarov N. S. gives the following example: “You goin' to court
this morning? asked Jim. We had strolled over” (Мы подошли к ее забору - “Вы в суд пойдете? ”
- спросил Джим). As the
marker of temporary relation in English text the relative tense Past Perfect is
used, but in Russian the order of sentences appropriates to the real order of
events “Then I saw old Pancho come around the corner of the wagon"
(Hemingway) (И тут вдруг старина Панчо стал огибать фургон. .) In this example
the marker of internal transition then is represented by contextual equivalent
и тут вдруг, appropriating to the stylistic norms of the given genre (the
narration is in a colloquial manner given by the story-teller). “When he
arrives in Paris next week our Foreign Secretary will have to spell out our
position” (Когда министр иностранных дел посетит на следующей неделе Париж, он
должен будет четко изложить нашу позицию).
The order of two correfent units is changing here
during the translation - of a name and personal pronoun, because in Russian
language the first pointing with the help of pronoun (such as “Когда он посетит
Париж, наш министр иностранных дел..." in the given genre (the newspaper
text) is unacceptable.
One of the problems of linguistics of the text
traditionally connected with the theory of translation is the actual
partitioning or the functional prospect of the sentence. Fruitful for the
theory of translation is, in particular, ascending to F. Danesh idea of a
thematic progression, according to which the theme cement the text, while rheme
serves for transference of new information.
Yu. V. Vannicov has developed the scheme focused
on the translation of the typology of texts. This scheme is based on 14 main
typological attributes generalizing the properties of text from the point of
view of practice of translation [4; 27]:
1). Linguistic organization;
2). Functional style;
3). Functional substyle;
4). Speech modus;
5). Dominant logic contents;
6). Subject (thematic) contents;
7). Form of speech presentation;
8). Genre differentiation;
9). Information primacy - non primacy;
10). Expressive - stylistic mentioning;
11). Basic pragmatic functions;
12). Concrete purposes;
13). Types of adequacy of the text;
14). Types of adequacy of translation.
To the linguistic organization belong oppositions
of the texts with rigid structure (scientifically technical) and with soft
structure (art). This attribute also takes into account the degree of copula of
the text. The functional styles are pointed depending on sphere of communication
(scientifically technical, social - business etc) [4; 28].
Typology created by Yu. V. Vannicov can be seemed
a little bulky. But its dividing into parts makes it more adequate to the given
task - the reflection of real variety of the texts.
The essential advantage of this typology is that
it takes into account the presence of mixed and transitive cases as well. So,
for example, Yu. V. Vannicov especially points out such functionally
non-uniform texts as informing - ordering.
So, as a
conclusion to chapter one of this work, it can be said that in the result of
the factors mentioned above, different peculiarities might be revealed during
translation. They are related to common features and differences between
similar functional styles of languages as well as to specific conditions and
tasks of translation activity of this type. In the outline of each functional
style there are some certain peculiarities and their impact on the procedure
and the way of translation are significant. Therefore, in this research work
the peculiarities of scientific-technical materials based on electric devices
manuals are studied. In the next chapter lexical and grammatical peculiarities
have been reviewed.
scientific and technical text, irrespective of its contents and character, can
be completely precisely translated from one language to other, even if in an
artwork such branch of knowledge is required, for which in language of
translation there is no appropriate nomenclature. In such cases the interpreter
more often resorts to interpretation, but becoming of a necessary nomenclature
of a realization in a sphere of production or those scientific circles, which
are engaged in data by problems.
valuable translation, it is necessary to an interpreter to present the
substantial acquaintance to a subject, which is treated in the original text.
2. Good enough
knowledge of language of an artwork and its lexical and grammatical features in
comparison to the native language.
3. Knowledge of
the bases' theory of translation, and also receptions of technical translation
and skill to use them.
introducing about the character of scientific and technical functional style
both in language of the original, and in the native language.
to accepted conventional signs, abbreviations (cuttings), systems of measures
and weights, both in language of the original and in the native language.
of the native language and the right use of a nomenclature.
the material of scientific-technical texts some of the characteriscts can be
1. The absence
of emotional colouring.
basically also causes absolute convertibility of the scientific and technical
texts, as the reader should not have stranger associations, he should not read
between lines, be admired by the game of words and calamburs. The writer's
purpose of the text is to describe either or other phenomenon or operation,
this or that subject or process.
It is necessary
to mark, that the English language differs by figurativeness, which cannot be
transferred to Russian translation.
E. g. “The
mother company bore a daughter in the Far East, granted her a dowry of
2.000.000 pounds and christened her…”
If to translate
literally, it will sound so:
"Компания мать родила на
Дальнем Востоке дочь, дала ей приданное в 2 млн. фунтов стерлингов и окрестила
After processing is obtained:
"Эта компания организовала
на Дальнем Востоке дочернюю компанию и выделила ей капитал в 2 млн. фунтов
стерлингов; новая компания стала именоваться…"
clearness and shortness.
The rushing to
clearness discovers expression in application of legible grammar constructions
and lexical units, and also in the wide use of a nomenclature. As a rule, the
placed terms will be utilized conventional,, though meet and terminoids (terms,
having circulation in a narrow orb), which considerably hamper translation. The
rushing to a multiplicity expresses in wide application of infinitive,
gerundial and subordinate clauses, abbreviations (cuttings) and conventional
3. The special
semantic load of some words of ordinary colloquial speech.
of words of ordinary speech is one of productive methods of the new terms'
E. g. to put
out - in ordinary speech "гасить огонь", but for sailors -
"выходить в море"
Stroke - in
ordinary speech "удар", but for mechanic - "ход поршня"
"мотыга", but for builders - "обратная лопата"
of words is an especially dangerous source of difficulties and errors for an
distinct from literary language, of the words' use of the basic dictionary
fund. The lexicon of the scientific and technical literature is much poorer
than lexicon of art products. Therefore rate of separate elements of common
lexicon of the scientific and technical literature is higher than rate of
elements of lexicon of art products, thus the literary - book words and
expressions, foreign drawings, scarcity of portable and contextual meanings
treat to characteristic features of scientific and technical style.
from the literary language rate of the use and relative importance of some
grammar shapes and constructions.
engineering literature Passive Voice is used in 16 times more often, than in
art. The definition in the engineering literature is used in 3 times more
often, than in art.
6. Scarcity of
the idioms' use.
word collocations are original irresolvable expressions having particular
sense, frequently independent from elements, included in them. The idioms
always have some emotional colouring and consequently are not entered in the
scientific and technical texts.
of abbreviations (cuttings) and conventional signs.
features of language of the scientific and technical literature and technique
of tutoring translation.
the scientific and technical literature " combines, as is known different
kinds of literature; the monographs, different textbooks, journal papers,
descriptions, quick references. These aspects of the scientific and technical
literature differ on language. In scientific and technical operations the
material is stated briefly, exact and logically and at the same time completely
enough and demonstrative. For all aspects of the scientific and technical
literature is present much common, as enables to speak about common lexical and
grammar features of the scientific and technical literature [17; 49].
The lexicon of
the scientific and technical literature consists of common words and great many
of the special terms.
One part of
common words such as to work, to know, place, new is known for the pupil from
school or other original course of the English language.
Other part of
common words is unknown by the pupil and represents that basic lexical reserve,
which they should acquire in learning process. This part of common words can
conditionally be subdivided on some groups:
Words used in
the scientific and technical literature in meanings, distinct from what pupils
have acquired in original course. For example verb to offer in the
scientific text more often is used in value "оказывать", instead of
To same group it
is necessary to refer and some auxiliary words such as for, as, since, after.
A feature of these words is that they can execute functions of different parts
of speech. For example word for can be a preposition and conjunction,
and is translated as "для", "в течение", and as a
conjunction "так как".
Words, which on
the first stage of tutoring usually are not studied.
E. g. to regard - рассматривать, считать.
to design -
Here it is
necessary to refer a great many of auxiliary words, not studied before,
"on account of" - из-за, “due to “ - благодаря.
word-combinations providing logical connections between separate parts of the
text and providing the logic of an account.
E. g. to begin
with - прежде всего
Summing up -
Word and word
combinations serving for relational expression of the writer to the stated
facts or for clarification of these facts.
E. g. needless to say - не
- строго говоря
The meanings of
such words should be learnt.
The feature of
phraseological word combinations used in the scientific and technical
literature is that they more or less neutral on colouring.
E. g. to be in
a position - быть в состоянии
to be under way
to bring into
action - начинать действавать
word combinations play the important role in the offer and they are necessary
stratum of the scientific and technical literature are the terms.
E. g. guidance
chamber - камера сгорания
gravity - сила тяжести
If the expert
well knows Russian nomenclature, having met in the text the unfamiliar term, he
can guess without the dictionary by what appropriate Russian term is necessary
difficulty for understanding and translation is represented by the terms
consisting not of one word, but from group of words. Disclosure of their
meanings requires (demands) particular sequence of operations and knowledge of
a method of translation of separate components. It is possible to recommend to
start translation from the last word. Then under the order on the right to the
left to translate words, facing to it, taking into account the semantic
relations between the components.
E. g. If we
translate the term "liquid-propellant power plant" - first of all it
should be translated "power plant" - силовая установка, and then
“propellant" - топливо, and the last word is “liquid" - жидкий. And
we can easily translate the whole word combination:
установка на жидком топливе"
It is necessary
to take into account that many terms are polysemantic.
E. g. stage -
in radiotechnics has several meanings:
2. Фаза, стадия
And in the
rocket engineering - ступень ракеты.
up, it is necessary to underscore, that the mastering of a strictly select and
rather restricted amount of words enables the specialist to read the scientific
and technical literature, not reverting to common English-Russian language and
using only by special dictionaries. Some more examples are submitted in the
The purpose of
science as a branch of human activity is to disclose by research the inner
substance of things and phenomena of objective reality and find out the laws
regulating them, thus enabling man to predict, control and direct their future
development in order to improve the material and social life of mankind. The
style of scientific prose is therefore mainly characterized by an arrangement
of language means which will bring proofs to clinch a theory. The main function
of scientific prose is proof. The selection of language means must therefore
meet this principle requirement.
The genre of
scientific works is mostly characteristic of the written form of language
(scientific articles, monographs or textbooks), but it may also be found in its
oral form (in scientific reports, lectures, discussions at conferences, etc);
in the latter case this style has some features of colloquial speech.
The language of
science is governed by the aim of the functional style of scientific prose,
which is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the
internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena,
etc. The language means used, therefore, tend to be objective, precise,
unemotional, and devoid of any individuality; there is a striving for the most
generalized form of expression.
The first and
most noticeable feature of this style is the logical sequence of utterances
with clear indication of their interrelations and interdependence, that is why
in no other functional style there is such a developed and varied system of
connectives as in scientific prose. The most frequently words used in
scientific text are functional words; conjunctions and prepositions.
The first 100
most frequent words of this style comprises the following units:
prepositions: of, to, in, for, with, on, at, by, from, out, about, down;
prepositional phrases: in terms of; in view of, in spite of, in common with, on
behalf of, as a result of; by means of, on the ground of, in case of;
conjunctional phrases: in order that, in case that, in spite of the fact that,
on the ground that, for fear that;
one, it, we, they;
words: people, time, two, like, man, made, years.
text is restricted to formal situations and, consequently, to formal style, it
employs a special vocabulary which consists of two main groups: words
associated with professional communication and a less exclusive group of
so-called learned words. Here one can find numerous words that are used in
scientific text and can be identified by their dry, matter-of-fact flavour, for
example, comprise, compile, experimental, heterogeneous, homogeneous,
conclusive, divergent, etc. Another group of learned word comprises mostly
polysyllabic words drawn from the Romance languages and, though fully adapted
to the English phonetic system, some of them continue to sound singularly
foreign. Their very sound seems to create complex associations: deleterious,
emollient, incommodious, meditation, illusionary.
important aspect of scientific and technological language is the
subject-neutral vocabulary which cuts across different specialized domains. In
particular, a great deal of scientific work involves giving instructions to act
in a certain way, or reporting on the consequences of having so acted.
categories can be identified within the language of scientific instruction and
exposition: ascertain, assume, compare, construct, describe, determine,
estimate, examine, explain, label, plot, record, test, verify.
Verbs of warning
and advising: avoid, check, ensure, notice, prevent, remember, take care; also
several negative items: not drop, not spill.
manipulation: adjust, align, assemble, begin, boil, clamp, connect, cover,
decrease, dilute, extract, fill, immerse, mix, prepare, release, rotate, switch
on, take, weigh.
modifiers and their related adverbs: careful (y), clockwise, continuous (ly),
final (ly), gradual (ly), moderate (ly), periodic (ally), secure (ly),
subsequent (ly), vertical (ly) (see Appendix 1).
vocabulary employed in scientific text bears its direct referential meaning,
that is, words used in scientific text will always tend to be used in their
primary logical meaning. Hardly a single word will be found here which is used
in more than one meaning. Nor will there be any words with contextual meaning.
Even the possibility of ambiguity is avoided.
neutral and common literary words used in scientific text will be explained,
even if their meaning is slightly modified, either in the context or in a
foot-note by a parenthesis, or an attributive phrase.
A second and no
less important feature and, probably, the most conspicuous, is the use of terms
specific to each given branch of science. Due to the rapid dissemination of
scientific and technical ideas, particularly in the exact sciences, some
scientific and technical terms begin to circulate outside the narrow field they
belong to and eventually begin to develop new meanings. But the overwhelming
majority of terms do not undergo this process of de-terminization and remain
the property of scientific text. There they are born, develop new
terminological meanings and there they die. No other field of human activity is
so prolific in coining new words as science is. The necessity to penetrate
deeper into the essence of things and phenomena gives rise to new concepts,
which require new words to name them. A term will make more direct reference to
something than a descriptive explanation, non-term. Furthermore, terms are
coined so as to be self-explanatory to the greatest possible degree.
is the multifaceted phenomenon and some aspects of it can be the subjects of
the research of different sciences. In the frames of the science of translation
psychological, literature critical, ethnographical and other points of
translation as well as the history of translation in one or other country are
being studied. According to the subject of research we use the knowledge of the
psychology of translation, the theory of art and literary translation,
ethnographical science of translation, historical science of translation and so
on. The main place in the modern translation belongs to linguistic translation,
which studies the translation as linguistic phenomenon. The different kinds of
translation complement each other and strive to detailed description of the
activity of the translation.
The theory of
translation puts forward the following tasks:
1. To open and
describe the common linguistic basis of translation, that is to show which
peculiarities of linguistic systems and regularities of the language operation
are the basis of the translating process, make this process possible and
determine its character and borders;
2. To determine
the translation as the subject of the linguistic research, to show its
difference from the other kinds of linguistic mediation;
3. To work out
the basis of classification of kinds of the translating activity;
4. To open the
essence of the translating equivalence as the basis of the communicative
identity of the original texts and the translation;
5. To work out
the common principles and the peculiarities of construction of the peculiar and
special translation theories for the different combinations of languages;
6. To work out
the common principles of the scientific description of the translation process
as actions of a translator of transforming the original text to the translating
7. To open the
influence on the translating process of pragmatic and social linguistic
8. To determine
the idea “the translating norm” and to work out the principles.
In the result of
this research it can be concluded that the main stylistic feature of
scientific-technical texts is exact and clear interpertation of the material
without any expressive elements that make the speech more emotionally
saturated. There are almost no metaphors, metonomy transpositions and other
stylistic features in sciectific-technical literature while they are widely
used in literary works.
scientific texts is far from live coloquim language, it contains a number of
neuteral phraseological units of technical specific. Main requirements for
scientific-technical translation to comply with are precision (all items in ST
shall be reflected in translation), conciseness (all items of ST shall be
translated laconically), clearness (conciseness and laconism of TL shall not
mess the lexics, its understanding), literarity (the text of the translation
shall comply with common norms of literary language without use of sintactical
structures of source language).
research it also can be revealed that common features of scientific-technical
with specific terms and terminology units;
2) presence of
grammatical and lexical structures;
in use of analogue stylistic features in SL and TL;
use frequency of certain speech parts.
All terms are
united into terminology systems that express notions of technics and science.
The difficulties that appear during the translation of the terms are connected
to imperfection of existing terminology systems. The most important among them
are the phenomena of terminology sinonyms, omonyms and polisemantic units. All
of this leads to the approach of context translation that is:
the word meaning due to its context;
the proper context equivalent term;
adequate text by means of selected context equivalent term.
of scientific-technical texts shall give an exact meaning of the source text.
Some deviations can be made due to the peculiarities of target language or
stylistic issue. It is very important to prevent the loss of meaningful
information contained in the source text.
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