Chapter I Phrasal verbs
Chapter I.1 The definition
of the verb
Chapter I.1.1 The function
of Phrasal verbs
Chapter I.2 History
Chapter I.2.2 The
structure and meaning of Phrasal verbs
Chapter I.2.3 Categories
of Phrasal verbs
Classification of Phrasal verbs
Chapter I.3 The Basic
structure of Phrasal verbs
Chapter I.3.1 Preposition
Chapter I.3.2 Verbs with
preposition and noun
Chapter I.3.3 Verbs with
Chapter II. English
Phrasal Verbs Lists
Chapter II.1 Phrasal verbs
grammar is the subject that provokes many argumentations. There are a lot of
methods of approaching an investigator's opinions. But nevertheless English
grammar is a peculiar structure and the topic, which is worth to be researched.
project is based on the descriptions of such grammatical phenomenon in English
Grammar and language as "Phrasal Verbs".
As is known,
those grammatical categories have not been inquired to the full, therefore they
are always topical.
purpose of the project is to explain the troubles that refer to the object of
investigation and to give lists of Phrasal verbs and to explain their meanings.
The basis of
this research is the problems that students most often come across with -
"practical and theoretical value of the types of Phrasal verbs, the
structure and their role in the English Grammar". 
In order to
study the subject of the project we used the following methods.
- method of
- method of
- method of
analysis Theoretical value of the work lies in the research of the formation
and usage of the types of Phrasal verbs in the English Language.
value lies in the fact that the present research work can be used by other
students and teachers who are interested in such grammatical sentences for the
- to improve
their knowledge of the grammar structure of the English Language
understand the structure of the phrasal verbs
distinguish the types of phrasal verbs
- to get
deeper knowledge about such phenomena in the English grammar as Phrasal verbs.
work consists of two chapters:
contains the theoretical basis and general notions of the work. In this chapter
we tried to give a definition of Phrasal verb, to analyze it and to give a
classification of Phrasal verbs.
contains the List of Phrasal verbs. In this chapter we tried to show the
meanings of phrasal verbs with different preposition.
In the Modern
English language the number of the Phrasal verbs grows. It is the evidence of
many books and dictionaries devoted to Phrasal verbs and their applications.
Together with the growth in number, the frequency of the usage also grows. This
means that the Phrasal verbs carry out their necessary function because of
greater conciseness and significance at the same time.
are used not only in the spoken language; several of them are the integral part
of the language of the newspapers and of the official business.
proceeding to the description of the Phrasal verbs, it is necessary to give the
definition of the verbs and of their function.
Definition of the Verb
A verb is a
word used primarily to indicate a type of action, such as to fly or to wish,
though it may also be used to indicate a general state of existence, such as to
live. There is also a special type of verb, known as a copula or linking verb,
which helps to describe the subject of the sentence, rather than describing an
action. The primary example of this in English is the verb to be which is
usually used in the role of linking verb. A verb is one of the basic building
blocks of a sentence in most languages, with most grammatical sentences
requiring at least one noun acting as a subject, and one verb to indicate an
Verbs can be
inflected, which means the verb is changed in some way to indicate something
about the sentence the verb is a part of. A verb may be inflected to describe
virtually anything. 
Function of the Verb
Paint! Giggle! Chew! What are these words doing? They are expressing action,
something that a person, animal, force of nature, or thing can do. As a result,
words like these are called action verbs.
three properties which characterize verbs in English - tense, voice, and mood.
The voice of a
verb, passive or active, expresses whether the action is being received by the
subject or being done by the subject. The two voices may occur in any tense.
The mood of a
verb expresses the conditions under which an action or condition is taking
place. In English there are three moods--indicative, subjunctive, or
imperative. Indicative and subjunctive can be in any tense; imperative, only in
the present tense.
Verbs are also
classified according to function. Action verbs show action or possession.
Action verbs are either transitive or intransitive. Linking verbs show the
condition of the subject. Auxiliary verbs, also called helping verbs, are used
with other verbs to change the tense, voice, or condition of the verb.
verbs are verbs conjugated with could, would, or should to show a possible
condition. They may be in any tense.
A verb is
often defined as a word which shows action or state of being. The verb is the
heart of a sentence - every sentence must have a verb. Recognizing the verb is
often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence. In
the sentence: the dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word which shows the
action of the sentence. In the sentence: the man is sitting on a chair, even
though the action doesn't show much activity, sitting is the verb of the
sentence. In the sentence: she is a smart girl, there is no action but a state
of being expressed by the verb is. The word be is different from other verbs in
many ways but can still be thought of as a verb.
Unlike most of
the other parts of speech, verbs change their form. Sometimes endings are added
(learn - learned) and sometimes the word itself becomes different
(teach-taught). The different forms of verbs show different meanings related to
such things as tense (past, present, and future), person (first person, second
person, third person), number (singular, plural) and voice (active, passive).
Verbs are also often accompanied by verb-like words called modals (may, could,
should, etc.) and auxiliaries (do, have, will, etc.)
One of the
most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. In English the
fourteen verb tenses express the time or relative time in which an action or
condition occurs. Verbs tell if something has already happened, if it will
happen later, or if it is happening now. For things happening now, we use the
present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we use the
past tense; and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense.
verbs were not investigated until the late nineteenth to early twentieth
century, although they have been part of the English language for centuries,
their history is still a controversial subject. Rolando Bachelor says it is
"impossible to write an exhaustive and definitive history of phrasal
verbs." The term itself, "phrasal verb," was first seen in print
in 1925 when Logan Pearsall Smith used it in Words and Idioms; it was
supposedly suggested to him by Editor Henry Bradley (Oxford Companion 772).
Phrasal verbs themselves, however, have been around much longer, as can be seen
by looking at some Shakespearean and Middle English works.
and goon dour, for example, are both phrasal verbs that have been found
in Middle English language in 1300 and 1388, respectively, and phrasal verbs
are common in Shakespeare's works. Even though they were present in literature
in the fourteenth century, they weren't considered serious formations until the
eighteenth century, when lexicographer Samuel Johnson noted them "with
great care" in his Dictionary of the English Language (1755).
believes the emergence of phrasal verbs to be "the most notable new
development in Middle English [the form of the English language spoken and
written from about the 12th to the beginning of the 16th centuries] involving
prepositions" (386). Phrasal verbs developed because Old English [the
earliest from of the English language, used up to around A.D. 1150 prefixes
were deteriorating (Cambridge History 377), and they have now practically
replaced the prefixes (Fischer 386). The deterioration of Old English prefixes
came about because it was becoming impossible to establish undeviating meanings
for them (Cambridge 377). Bachelor argues in his commentary that "phrasal
verbs are a native development that in some measure received a boost from the
[Scandinavian, French, and Celtic] languages." In fact, the development of
phrasal verbs in both the northern and southern dialects at the same time
attests to their native development. Also, since phrasal verbs are used more in
vernacular English than in formal and since lexically mature verb-particle
combinations have been found in the mid-twelfth century, some experts argue
that "we must suppose the type to have become deeply entrenched even
before period IV [i.e. the period between 1170 and 1370]" (Fischer 398). Even
then, phrasal verbs did not show much fortitude until the fifteenth century. The
expansion of phrasal verbs occurred with the adoption of the Subject Verb
Object (SVO) word-order (Bachelor). One researcher, Kennedy, proposes the idea
that this took place because the invasion of Romance compound verbs stunted the
growth of new verb-particle combinations (Fischer 398). The history of phrasal
verbs is still under debate today. 
structure and meaning of phrasal verbs
A phrasal verb
is a combination of a "simple" verb (consisting of one word). (For
example: come, put, go) and a postposition (for example: in, off, up),
representing semantic and syntactic uniform unit.
For example: come in - to enter give
up - to cease The phrasal verb can be replaced by a "simple" verb. It
characterizes a phrasal verb as semantic unity:
call up –
come by –
put off –
put up with -
criterion is not common for all phrasal verbs since the equivalent of many
phrasal verbs is a word-combination:
break down -
make up -
take off - of
a plane - leave the ground. 
peculiarity is idiomatic. The idiom is a combination of two or more words,
whose value does not coincide with the value of its components. Many phrasal
verbs have the value which is impossible to deduce from the values of its
For example: bring up - educate
give up - stop
doing, using, etc.
go off -
come by -
difficult to define the meaning of an idiomatic verb.
So for example
the verbs fall down and pull off, on the one hand, don't possess any idiomatic
fall down - to
pull off - to
remove, pull down
verbs have also the following dictionary values.
fall down - 1)
to admire (to someone in power)
2) to fail,
unsuccessfully to terminate
pull off - 1)
to achieve, despite difficulties
2) to win (a
So, the given
property is not the core for phrasal verbs.
value of a verb can be deduced from its components.
verbs have two and more values, one of which idiomatic, others opposite which
are easily deduced from their components.
consider the ability of phrasal verbs to form the passive voice as one of their
For example: Payments are limited to
10 % each month.
must be measured out exactly.
property of a phrasal verb is the possibility to have adverbial postposition
before and after a noun used with the given verb. For object the final position
bears the big semantic loading, therefore if addition does not bear the new or
important information, usually it settles down interposition.
Call him up or call up him (not his sister)
If the object
is expressed by several words, it, most likely, will be taking of a final
example: He put on the coat he had bought in London.
If the object
is expressed by a pronoun, it always is interposition.
example: He took his coat and put it on. 
Categories of Phrasal verbs
the syntactic indivisible combinations of the verb and a postposition with
perspective brought by postpositions in their values I.E. Anichkov
distinguishes five categories of such combinations:
Combinations in which the postposition has specifically spatial meaning,
For example: go in, come out, take
away, bring, back).
Combinations in which the postposition is an abstract derived value, whose
contact with the primary meaning is felt
For example: let a person down = fail
come in = find
bring out =
pull through =
pick up =
combination in which only the postposition underlines or supports the
importance of the verb.
For example: fall down, rise up, turn
over, and circle round;
combination of values, which don't arise from the values of verbs and
postpositions are not felt as emanating from them, and are semantically
For example: come about = happen
fall out =
give up =
drop off =
take in =
combination in which the postposition brings lexically specific hue.
The last bit
postposition brings nuance:
eat up = eat the hole;
Carry out =
means not complete action and termination an unfinished action:
Give up an
strike up a
tune, light up = begin smoking;
break out = to
start suddenly (of violent events).
g) Durative or
Go on, talk
away, struggle along;
interactive, or repeated. Such postpositions as again, anew, afresh, sometimes
back and over endorsing the verb form a combination with value of the
repetition of steps:
write anew, and write afresh....
classification of verb phrase is not absolute.
between the discharges are not clearly established, and the verb in one case
may apply to the second level, and the other to the fourth. This may be due to
the fact that the etymology of the verb in time to reveal all complex and,
consequently, its value is not derived from his components. In addition, there
are always words that allow different interpretations.
classification should be called conditional.  
of Phrasal verbs
Group verb is
very diverse as to their compatibility, as well as the added value that they
are or who they acquire in the text. They can express the character of the
transition from one state to another, inducing action, etc., but in all cases
action is always a value, the prisoners in the verb.
Very large and
diverse group of phrase verbs express the movement and at the same time
describing it. Verbs of this group often express not just the traffic and move
from one place to another. Therefore, most of them used to Postpositions
indicating direction of movement (into, out, up, to).
For example: stand up - stand up;
go out - go,
go into -
jump into -
It should be
noted cases where the phrasal verb is termination, or, conversely, the
beginning of the movement.
For example: get over - to end, away
jump down -
jumping off, jump off;
run out - run
get off - to start (something);
A very large
group consists of group verb, expressing the transition object from one state
to another, or his movement.
In fact, verbs
of motion objecting to the transition from immobility or beginning of motion,
can be attributed to this group or be considered as an intermediate link.
Generally, the boundaries between different groups of phrase verbs are very
unsteady in lexical terms, so it is not easy determined.
For example: 1) move in = to take
possession of a new place to live
move towards -
to go in the direction of (something or someone)
2) to change
one's opinion in the direction of.
move off = to
start a journey; leave.
group belongs to group verb with semantic component "Lack of change of an
example: stay behind;
to remain at a
distance behind something or someone;
keep behind ;
stay down = to remain at a lower level ;
= to stay in a forward or leading position
group of values is dominated by verbal component "image Movement ".
walk away from = to leave (something or someone) on foot;
walk about /
around = to walk in a place without direction;
spin along =
to move forward easily a quite quickly with a
/ off = to make (somebody) leave through fear. 
Basic Structure of Phrasal Verbs
are verbs that form a combination (a phrase) with postpositions or prepositions
and nouns. Such structures are usually idiomatic in meaning, and should be
memorized as such.
purposes, phrasal verbs can be divided into basic structures:
and post preposition
2. Verbs with
prepositions and noun
3. Verbs with
Prepositions and Postpositions
and postpositions in English are the same in form but different in function.
Some prepositions are not used as postpositions, for example, "at, for,
from, into, onto, of, with". Some postpositions are not used as
prepositions, for example, "ahead, apart, aside, away, back, and forward".
But some of them can function as prepositions or postpositions depending on the
structure in which they are used, for example, "about, across, along,
around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, out, over, through, under, up", so
it's important to understand the difference between them.
is used with a noun (or its substitute), stands before it, and is not stressed.
A preposition is part of a prepositional noun phrase, which means that a
preposition always needs a noun. A postposition is used with a verb, stands
after it, usually forms an idiom with this verb (it changes the meaning of the
verb), and is always stressed. A postposition is part of the predicate, which
means that a postposition always needs a verb. Some linguists call postpositions
"adverbs", "adverbial particles" or
"preposition-adverbs", because they are adverbial in character.
How did he get
in? How did he get in / into the house?
In the first
sentence, the postposition "in" is part of the phrasal verb "get
in", is stressed, and in this sentence receives the falling intonation. In
the second sentence, the preposition "in" or "into" belongs
to the noun "the house" and is not stressed.
with prepositions and nouns
structure "Verb with preposition and noun", the verb dictates the
choice of a specific preposition, and this means that in many cases you need to
learn these phrases by heart. A suitable noun or its substitute (a pronoun, a
gerund, a question word) is always used in this structure and always stands after
its preposition. In the lists of phrasal verbs, the words "something"
and "someone" show where exactly the nouns stand in this structure. A
suitable noun is chosen by the speaker according to the situation, for example:
We agreed on
the price of 50 dollars.
We agreed on
going to Rome in the spring
We agreed on
it. What did you agree on?
Quite often, a
direct object (another noun or pronoun) goes between the verb and the
preposition with noun in this structure, for example:
you on your new job.
Mike for the loss of her bag.
There are two
key elements in this structure: the verb and the postposition. Phrasal verbs of
this kind present the most difficulty as they are highly idiomatic, i.e. their
meaning is not predictable from the meanings of their components, and they
usually have several idiomatic meanings. Many verbs can be used as phrasal
verbs with postpositions, but the most important and the most productive are
the verbs of motion: break, bring, call, check, close, come, cut, do, drop,
fall, get, give, go, look, make, move, pick, pull, push, put, run, set, show,
take, tear, turn and some others. And the verb "be" - the biggest
verb of English.
The meaning of
a phrasal verb with a postposition is usually idiomatic, that is, different
from the literal meanings of its components, for example:
is too difficult, I give up.
Watch out! The
bus is coming!
verb "give up" is idiomatic, because it means "stop trying to do
something", not the sum of the literal meanings of the words
"gives" and "up". The phrasal verb "watch out" is
idiomatic, because it means "be careful", not the sum of the literal
meanings of the words "watch" and "out".
A verb with a
postposition may be without any noun after it, or there may be a direct or
indirect object after it, for example: 
They broke in.
They broke in
They broke in
through the window.
When a pronoun
is used instead of a noun, it usually stands between the verb and the
up their three sons in Italy
them up in Italy
Fill out the
form. Fill it out.
English, a direct object in the form of a short noun or someone's name may also
stand between the verb and the postposition:
Let in Anna
Blake. Let Anna Blake in.
postposition shouldn't be placed too far from the verb or separated from it by
intonation, because they create the meaning of the phrasal verb together.
with postpositions, especially the verbs of motion, are also used in the
literal meaning of the phrasal verb:
Put your boots
out, I'll clean them.
to put out the light before you leave.
Look up the
reading and looked up.
verb "put out" in the first sentence literally means "put
outside" and is the sum of the meanings of "put" and
"out". The phrasal verb "put out" in the second sentence is
idiomatic, because it means "extinguish (the light, fire or
cigarette)" and is not the sum of the literal meanings of "put"
verb "look up" in the first sentence is idiomatic, because it means
"find in a reference book" and is not the sum of the literal meanings
of "look" and "up". The phrasal verb "look up" in
the second sentence literally means "look up" and is the sum of the
meanings of "look" and "up".
meanings of verbs with postpositions present no difficulty for understanding.
The literal meanings of the postpositions in such phrasal verbs often
correspond to the meaning of prefixes in Russian verbs, for example: come in,
go out, run out, give away, turn away, etc.
But verbs with
postpositions very rarely, if ever, have only the literal meaning or only one
meaning. Verbs with postpositions are verbs with several idiomatic meanings,
and this means that they can be used in different situations instead of more
postpositions are mostly used in simple tenses. Verbs with postpositions are
usually less formal than their one-word synonyms and because of that they are
widely used in conversational English.
There is a
variation (or combination) of the two basic structures described above, in
which a verb with a postposition takes a preposition and a suitable noun after
it, for example:
forward to your letter.
She walked out
He is through
with the report.
So, in the
chapter one I tried to give common definition to verbs, its function on the
English grammar. Also I gave a History and a definition of Phrasal verb and its
categories, classification and the basic structure of Phrasal verbs.
ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS LISTS.
2.1 List of
chapter we tried to show different of the meanings of Phrasal verbs which
depend on preposition: 
with the preposition "on" which express:
Just as I entered the house, all the lights came on.
catch on I don't think this
strange new fashion catches on.
bring on The waiter brought the
next dish on.
go on We
begin work at 12 and go on till half-past one.
Keep on with your studies, however hard it
You're supposed to stop work here when you're 65,
but many people
are allowed to stay on.
The writer dragged on an unhappy existence for many
years until in
the end she killed herself.
Let's move on to the business of the meeting.
It is getting on for supper-time.
A storm is coming on.
He put his coat on hurriedly and ran out of the house.
She tried on new dress and shoes
throw on Mr.
Smith threw on the coat and disappeared
slip on He
stopped only long enough to slip a coat on.
On - Other
Two men stole the jewels while a large crowd looked on
Pick on one job and get it done.
take on Don't
take on so!
Verbs with "In"
"Come in!" called the director when he heard the knock at his door.
Let's drop in on Jim and Mary
One of the guests popped in to say goodbye
Please get the children in, their dinner's ready.
check in Has
Mr. Light checked in at the hotel yet?
We may have to bring extra workers in to help us with this big job.
phase in The teacher phase in the
children to the new game.
Rain set in.
call in The director has just
called in to say that he'll be late.
fill in I'm just filling in here
I put in two hours on my English studies every day.
He joins in our conversation
go in for How long has Jim gone in
for collection stamps?
The last firm he worked for caved in
do in You'd
better go ahead; I'm done in and must rest
give in The two boys fought until
one gave in.
chuck in Jim has chucked in his
sink in You could see how his
cheeks had sunk in.
take in I was taken in by his
go up The barometer is going up
at a tremendous rate
grow up When Jack grows up he
wants to be a fireman
pick up Jim dropped his pen and
bent to pick it up.
push up Shops are no longer
allowed to push up their prices
speed up The tempo of music speeds
bump up Two more good results
will bump up your average.
brush up I must brush up my
do up But who is to do up your
room every day?
dress up Mary (was) dressed up for
use up John felt used up
clear up When you've finished your
meal, please clear up the kitchen.
drink up Drink up, then I'll
refill your glass.
end up Be careful, you could end
up by getting hurt.
follow up The director will follow
up the committee's suggestions.
blow up It looks as if it's
blowing up for severe weather.
break up In spring the ice on the
Great Lakes breaks up.
wind up I'm afraid he's wound up.
mess up She really messed up my
mix up My
papers are all mixed up.
Someone must have slipped up.
Can you split up this piece of wood?
I'll let you know if anything comes up.
I was brought up to respect the law.
with I had to run to come up with her.
What have you been thinking up?
These three articles make up the whole book.
go up I want to go up to London
The train drew up in the station.
catch up He
spent six months catching up with his studies.
face up to
She is too young to face up to the truth about her father.
live up to
You must live up to law.
The sun warmed up the seat nicely
He soldiers were drawn up in battle lines.
My father me set up a Mother's day.
soften up You go in and soften
father up, and then I'll ask him for the money.
Can you fix up a meeting with the director?
Show the doctor up when he comes.
I will not take up any more of your time.
with I can't put up with it any longer.
for Your office must make up for a loss.
bring down The gunners brought down
calm down Calm down, there's
nothing to worry about.
The plane came down safely in spite of the mist.
Your article will have to be cut down to fit into the book.
The fire is dying down, put some more wood on!
If there's shooting going on, keep down.
down Let's narrow an argument down.
Politicians have to learn to play down to the voters.
The severe snowstorm has slowed the traffic down.
The number of visitors scales down.
break down The police broke the door
Don't let down now, just when the job's nearly finished.
Darkness closed down on the city.
step down The quantity of medicine
to be taken can be stepped down
after the first week.
turn down Why do you turn down the
volume on the radio ?
Can you take down this address?
jot down I must jot down that
telephone number before I forget it.
Get down every word she says.
Would you put them down to my account?
write down Write down, please, this examples.
down I scribbled down the telephone number, and now I can't read it.
Peace talks have broken down in the Middle East.
Shopkeepers have been asked to bring down their prices.
The government has promised to crack down on criminal activity.
We've been hunting down a good cheap house all over the city.
The price was knocked down to 3 dollars.
The record is worn down.
to It's time we got down to work.
looked down on Jim and thought he was not worthy of her daughter.
pin down It is difficult to pin
down the exact meaning of this verb.
He put his heavy bag down on the ground.
Verbs with "Out"
Three men broke out of prison yesterday.
go out I don't think you should
out with that bad cold.
When do you moved out?
I had just popped out for a breath of fresh air.
He set out for work an hour ago.
check out I'm afraid old Charlie
has checked out.
cancel out His good qualities and
his faults cancel out.
cross out Cross out the last two
names, they're not members any more.
keep out Do keep children out of
kick out Don't kick the cat out
like that, it's cruel.
leave out No possibility must be
It can not be that he opted out of society.
À good holiday will pull
A sudden storm ruled out the boat race.
His master threw him out.
I'm just going to check this book out of the library.
find out We should find out the
Can you figure out this word?
sound out Could you sound the
director out on this question?
try out Did Mr. Smith try out a
Fade out the last scene at the end.
peter out The climbers' efforts to
reach the top petered out.
The makers have decided to phase out the production of this car.
run out The contract runs out
Have you sold out all the tickets yet?
The police men wipe out the enemy.
"Producing" (especially sounds,
Peter blurted out the news before he considered its effect.
Jane call out when she saw her friend across the street.
Jane, don't cry one's heart out.
He let out a cry of pain as the nail went into his foot.
Speak out, we can't hear you.
spill out At last he spill out the
story of his part in the crime.
bear out The prisoner's story was
borne out by his wife.
give out The sun gives out light
and heat to the earth.
hand out Hand out the question
papers as the students enter.
Can you help me out with my English homework?
How many of the young men passed out this year?
The guide took us through the city, pointing interesting sights out.
We all have certain duties and jobs to carry out.
sort out Wait till I get you
outside, and I'll sort you out!
He stood out for better terms.
He never takes me out.
can't walk out on your family at a time like this.
drop off My top button has dropped
off and I can't find it.
We must be getting off now.
head off Your should head off a
see off All the parents were at
the railway station, seeing the children off to school.
He set off for work an hour ago.
He took me off to the garden. 
fight off I must wear warm clothes,
as I am fighting off this cold.
hold off Why you hold your
keep off Keep
off the subject!
put off Never put off till
tomorrow what you can do today.
Higher coffee prices are scaring off the customers.
ward off The fighter had to ward
off a dangerous blow.
carry off It was a daring attempt
but he carried it off.
I must finish off the work while the light is good.
It's a good feeling to pay off the house after all these years.
John at last pulled examine off.
top off Top off your compositions
and put off. 
call off The game was called off.
It cools off with extreme slowness.
John wouldn't dare to rip off a bank.
I think he visited us just to show off his new car.
Six of us were told off to get fuel. 
Verbs with "Back"
bring back You must bring these
library books back next week.
back/phone back I'll call you back.
get back When did your neighbors
get back from their holiday?
give back When can you give back
take back My mind took me back to
that evening .
answer back She always taught him not
to answer back.
bounce back Small children often
catch diseases, but they soon bounce back.
fight back She fought back her tears
as she said goodbye.
pay back We will pay them back for
the trick they played on us.
back He had a chance to strike back.
Jim had to choke back his anger or he would have hit the man.
The factory's production has been cut back.
fight back I had to fight back a
desire to laugh at the small child's remark.
I held back from jumping into the cold water
Away when combined with
different verbs, can have the meaning of leaving, disappearing, or storing.
break away Part of the country broke
away to form a new nation.
drive away Don't drive people away
who want to help you.
get away I couldn't get away at
all last year, I was too busy.
go away There was no answer to my
knock, so I went away
keep away The doctor advised Jim to
keep away from fattening foods.
move away Losing interest, the
crowd moved slowly away.
run away Don't run away, I want to
talk to you.
scare away Higher coffee prices are
scaring away the customers.
take away You may take away. 
chuck away Why did you chuck your
money away on such a worthless plan?
with This old custom is done away with.
The music faded away.
The politician gave away his best chance to win the election
pass away Why the animals pass
throw away John throw away an
advantage to rest.
I'll file his name away for future use.
hideaway Muslim women hide away
lock away She locked her memories
of him away in her heart.
put away Please put your toys away.
verbs of "over" like think things over or check things over
carry the meaning of considering or examining. However, when combined with
other verbs, "over" can also carry the meaning of changing or
check over I asked the doctor to
check me over.
look over We must look the school
over before sending our son there.
/ think over Think over what I've said.
talk over Mrs. Taylor talk the
prosecutor over her innocence.
over / Switch over If you change the words over, the sentence sounds over.
hand over The escaped criminal was
handed over to the police.
move over There's room for three if
you move over.
take over I want to take her all
over the house.
blow over I hope your troubles will
soon blow over.
carry over The rights to the
property carry over to the buyer.
get over How can we get over? The
traffic's so busy.
run over The bathwater is running
smooth over Perhaps a gift of flowers
will help to smooth your quarrel over.
2.1 Phrasal verbs in use
import thing is to understand the meanings of English phrasal verbs and to be
able to use them in speech and in writing. English people use them all the
time: we can meet phrasal verbs in songs, magazines and newspaper articles. For
example:   
We can give
examples found in literature
1. What he saw
was worse than he had figured out.
2. Very few
people care about orphans.
1. The French
Revolution broke out in 1789.
2. A man was
brought up to the standards set by Reason.
romantic poets, who could not put with and longed to transcend the limits set
by nature and society to man, searched for permanence.
challenge resulted in the emancipation of the creative imagination.
5. These views
f the poet account for the fact that romantic poetry is largely inward-looking.
penetrably of mystery attracted the romantic soul, but it was constantly pulled
back into the real.
1. We find it
difficult to keep in touch with ourselves.
2. Music helps
us to keep in touch with ourselves.
stopped being a song and turned into sound.
4. The Beatles
came along and solved the problem.
verbs used in the language of computing and the Internet are overwhelmingly
e-mailing or using word processor, surfing the net or just chatting with your
friend about the new computer you’ve just bought, you’re sure to come across
the verbs listed below.
pop up – appear suddenly
Every time I
open this site, a new window pops up saying that I won a free prize.
– move (a
There was a
long list of names on the webpage and I had to scroll down to view all
dial up – dial a number that
connects a computer with an Internet service provider
takes my computer for ever to dial up to my Internet service provider.
plug in – insert a plug into an
She forgot to plug
in her printer and was wondering why it didn’t work.
log in – enter a computer by
providing username and password
in to my bank account every week to check my balance.
set up – establish
I asked my
friend help me set up my email account.
It is sensible to back
up your files regularly. That way you can always restore an important
document if it gets deleted.
Wait till the PC boots
up, then log in and run the programs you need.
My PC broke down
and I couldn't use it until somebody came and fixed it for me.
I can't listen to music
on my computer because my speakers are not connected up.
The computer went
down and when I booted up again the report I'd been working on had
You must log in
to the local network to be able to share files with other people.
You must log out
and then log in again for the changes to take effect.
There's something wrong
with my printer: it lets me print out one page at a time only.
I don't see any point
in shutting down my PC when I go to lunch - I rarely spend more than
fifteen minutes away from the computer during the working day.
Make sure you save all
the documents you've been working with before you switch off your PC.
Some older PCs don't
allow you to switch them on by clicking your mouse or pushing a
key on the keyboard.
To post a message on
this forum, type in your name and your message, then hit the 'Submit'
The virus wiped out
all the data stored on the computer.
It is not an
exaggeration when we say that the items about Phrasal verbs are one of the main
and important items of theoretical study and practical mastering of the English
take a considerable place in vocabulary verbs of Modern English language and
are generally used in idiomatic phrases. Their functioning is heterogeneous
with a view to their great variety. The development and supplementation of
Phrasal verbs system proceeds in two directions: new verbs inclusion and
In our paper
we have analyzed about one hundred twenty verbs, taken from the informal
speech. As a result, we can make the following conclusion:
are frequently used. Their usage becomes usual phenomena in English grammar as
well as mass media.
As a rule
usage of phrasal verbs in stylistic is not heterogeneous.
classified Phrasal verbs, taken from the informal speech with a view to their
meaning we made a conclusion that the verbs with postposition “on” and “up”
predominate as a large quantity of verbs with these postpositions are
Having the list
of Phrasal verbs we can make the conclusion that postposition plays the main
role in the semantic meaning of the verb. And those phrasal verbs usage in the
informal speech allows us to express our thioughts and make our speech more
dynamic and diverse.
annual project can be used for studying and teaching this phenomenon in the
course English grammar and for learning their meaning more deeply. 
1. Bollinger, D., (1971), The
Phrasal Verb in English, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
2. Brazil, D. A Grammar of
Speech D. Brazil. - Oxford University Press , 1995
3. Brinton, L., (1988), The
Development of English Aspectual Systems, Cambridge University Press,
4. Comrie, B., (1976),
Aspect, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
5. Live, A. H., (1965), The
Discontinuous Verb in English, Word 21: 428-51.
6.Àðíîëüä, È.Â. Ñòèëèñòèêà ñîâðåìåííîãî àíãëèéñêîãî
ÿçûêà. È.Â.Àðíîëüä. - Ì.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå, 1981.
7. Speak English. English
for Romanians. Magazine. 1, 1991,
8. Academic center:
English as a Foreign Language #"#">#"#">#"#">#"#">#"#">http://owl.english
16. Íîâåéøèé àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü,
ðóññêî-àíãëèéñêèé.- Ê.: Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Àðèé», Ì.: ÈÊÒÖ «Ëàäà»,2008,-960
17. Online-dictionary LINGVO
18. Oxford Advanced
Dictionary of Current English [Text] / A.S. Hornsby with the assistance of A.P.
Cowie, J. Windsor Lewis. – Oxford University Press, 1978. – 1055 p.
of Education and Youth
of Romanic-Germanic Languages
LE – 07-02