in Belarus (1905 - 1914 gg)
One of the most influential trends in
Russia's socio-political movement of the early XX century was a
conservative-protective or right-monarchist. The ideological foundations of
Russia's conservatives had been laid earlier, but the institutionalization of the
supporters of "escort" of traditional institutions comes at a time
when Russia seized the revolutionary elements. The answer to the radicalization
of society was to consolidate the social forces, spoke in support of autocratic
power. Across the country, have appeared numerous reactionary organization. Among
them are emerged in St. Petersburg society to actively fight against the
revolution and anarchy, the Society of Russian patriots in Moscow, Russian
Brotherhood in Kiev, the Patriotic Society in Tiflis, the tsarist-popular
Russian society in Kazan, the Union "white flag" in Nizhny Novgorod
and Dozens of other monarchist organizations, who called the people to fight
The most significant pravomonarhicheskimi
associations, which researchers often refer to political parties were "Russian
assembly", "Russian Monarchist Party, the Union of Russian people"
and "Union of Russian People. Their software and statutory positions were
practically identical. The main aim, they saw "the development of Russian
national identity and a strong association of the Russian people of all classes
and conditions of work for the common benefit of our dear motherland - Russia
one and indivisible" [1, pp.35]. Ideologues of conservatism advocated own
way of development of Russia, against the extension of Russia's ground of
liberal Western values and democracy. They defended the then existing
political, socio-economic, religious, spiritual and domestic foundations of
Russia's life. Into the sacred preservation of Orthodoxy, autocracy, and
unlimited Russian national championships, they saw the benefit of Russia.
In 1906 - 1908 gg. pravomonarhicheskoe
movement becomes the most massive socio-political trend. More than 200 towns
and villages of Russia empire acted monarchist organization. However,
statistics on the Black Hundreds in different sources differ. It is estimated
that the Police Department, at that time there were about 410 thousand people. Modern
scholar Yu Kir'yanov put the figure at 399.5 thousand people [2, pp.31]. Themselves
as Black Hundreds numbers in its ranks a greater number of like-minded people -
up to three million people, given as active participants in the movement, and
passive - those who shared the ideology of the movement, as well as those who
served in close to the Black Hundreds of local associations, such as Orthodox
Brotherhood, the Society horugvonostsev, temperance societies, etc. These
differences relate to the fact that virtually all the then Party of Russia had
the vague criteria for membership.
It should also be noted most vsesoslovny
character pravomonarhicheskogo movement that set him apart from parties and
organizations of liberal and radical left orientation. It was attended by
workers and peasants, artisans and tradesmen, merchants and intellectuals,
clergy and nobles, servants. In this leadership role in the movement played by
the representatives of the Russian Orthodox clergy and the Russian national
Main Vserossiiskoi pravomonarhicheskoy
organization (the party) was the "Union of Russian People" (NRC),
formed in St. Petersburg on Nov.8, 1905 His department acted in most provinces
of Russia empire. The most active they have been represented in Belarus and
Ukraine, where much was the influence of anti-Russian forces: there were more
than half of all members of the NRC. For example, in Belarus NRC offices
operated in 36 towns and numbered in its ranks about 29.5 thousand members [3,
pp.41]. Thus, in the Vilna province acted 2 organizations (1000), Vitebsk - 9 (10071),
Grodno - 3 (900), Minsk 15 (4420), Mogilev - 20 (11652) [4, pp.96].
In addition to offices of the Union of
Russian People in Belarus operated ideological kinship NRC organizations such
as Society "Peasant", founded in late 1905, and emerged in 1906,
"Russian suburban Union", which was later reorganized as the "Russian
margins of society." In 1908, a split society, "peasant" emerged
"The Belarusian society", which included representatives of the
intelligentsia, civil servants and peasants. Around the same time in Minsk, has
become one organization operate more right-wing "Orthodox Brotherhood, and
in Grodno and Vitebsk were working party branches" of the right order."
In 1910, in Grodno was created "Russian National Union of Grodno province"
[5, pp.270 - 271].
In general, all pravomonarhicheskie
organizations of Belarus, despite some differences, stood on the positions of
"zapadnorusizma", believing that the Belarusians, together with the
Great Russians and Little Russians are part of a three-pronged Russian people. Not
recognizing the existence of a separate independent nation of Belarus, the
ideologues Black Hundreds, at the same time pointed out some cultural specifics
of the Belarusian people and the political, ethno-cultural and spiritual
development associated with the strengthening of Belarusian Russian nation,
which was supposed to be a dominant empire in Russia, the dominant position. The
main threat to this in the western provinces, in their opinion, acted Polish
element, whose influence is strongly felt in all spheres of public life. In
this regard, in an open letter to members of the State Duma and the Russian
society is one of the most active members of the right movement in Belarus DV
Skrynchenko noted: "This is not left" tuteyshego "no nobility,
no petty gentry or merchant class, which would not be okatolicheny and
opolyacheny. There are only a few newly arrived Russian landowners.russian is
really just "pop da slave. And opolyachennye the local nobles, headed by
fanatical priests, hurrying to finish here what they had done the old
aristocratic Poland, ie okatolichit and opolyachit peasantry " [6, pp.4]. As
the principal means of combating the growing influence of the Polish-Catholic,
he sees the policies aimed at ensuring that "the Belarusian people to
return to his Russian Orthodox... consciousness. Such a policy is in its
essence, according Skrynchenko, there is no Russification, and depolonizatsiya.
"For its part, say - goes on to say in his message - that local people
return to it from time immemorial Russian national consciousness is not the
policy of" Russification ". Do not use this bugbear to our side: this
term is offensive to the local Russian population - the Belarusians. Here in
ancient something more fundamental Russia than, for example, in Penza, and she
is covered by the Polish lacquer. And the whole question of "Russification"
here boils down to in order to clear the Polish lacquer " [6, pp.7]. Among
the measures designed to strengthen Russian influence in Belarus, DV
Skrynchenko calls to establish knowledge of the history of the local region,
the publication of relevant literature, the appointment to all positions in the
local civil and military administration solely those of the Orthodox religion,
the establishment of special protivokatolicheskih missionaries. Also offered
throughout the province to introduce compulsory education in the Russian
Orthodox-national basis [6, pp.14 - 15].
Pravomonarhicheskie association took an
active part in the elections to the State Duma. And the creation of some of
them as time and was due to conduct of election campaigns. For example, the
"Russian suburban Union, which advocated a" united and indivisible
Russia, "the elimination of the economic impact of the Polish landowners
and the Jewish bourgeoisie and demanded to prohibit participation in the
elections of Poles and Jews, with the support of government agencies and the
Orthodox Church held in the Duma II 15 Deputies. In elections to the Duma, III
and IV of the right in the Belarusian provinces received an absolute majority
of seats. Thus, in the last Duma, 30 of the 36 deputies from Belarus were in
the right block [6, pp.292].
Thus pravomonarhicheskoe movement was an
important factor in social life of Belarus in the period. Activities of
right-wing parties, unions and other companies contributed to the formation of
the local population all-Russian identity and the consolidation of the forces
working on the one hand, against the revolution, on the other hand, the
imposition of Belarusian foreign to the Polish influence.
1. Klykov, V. Union
of Russian People in the struggle for Russia / V. Klykov. - Moscow: Russian
2. Kiryanov, YI
Number and composition of the extreme right-wing parties in Russia (1905 - 1917
gg): Trends and causes of changes / YI Kiryanov. // National History. - 1999. -
№ 5. - S.29 - 43.
3. Bondarenko, KM
Russian and Belarusian monarchists in the beginning of XX century. / KM
Bondarenko, DS Lavrinovic. - Mogilev, 2003.
4. Suvalova, EN The
history of social movements and political parties: Textbook. manual / EN
Suvalova. - Minsk, 2005.
5. Tile, VN
Participation of the Orthodox clergy in the diocese of Grodno elections IV
Gosudarstvennuyui Duma / VN Tile / Заходні рэгіен
Belarus eyes have appeared гісторыкаў i краязнаўцаў: ZB. Sci. Art. - Grodno: GrDU, 2006.
6. Skrynchenko, DV
The tragedy of the Belarusian people / DV Skrynchenko. - Minsk, 1908.