Teaching speaking through discussion
Teaching speaking through discussion
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE
IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV
Teaching speaking through
a fourth year student
of the English department
an assistant professor
of the English department
1. Chapter 1. Fundamental considerations in teaching writing essays
1.1 The importance of writing essays
1.2 Basic principles of teaching writing essays: writing techniques
1.3.organization of the essays. Essay structure
2. Chapter 2
2.1 Types of essays. Essay samples
2.2 Punctuation. Word choice
2.3 Linking words and phrases
Written communication has become extremely important
for interaction in the modern world with the instant technological development.
Recently writing assessments and essays have become a vital part of a formal education.
Secondary students are taught to structure their compositions in order to improve
their writing skills. Both in secondary and tertiary education, essays are used
to judge the mastery and comprehension of material. Students are asked to explain,
comment on or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay.
What is an essay? Essay is a short piece of
writing on a particular subject which presents the author’s point of view. It is
an organized set of ideas and reflections. This presentation of views must be done
in a logical and factual manner with the use of the first
person often discouraged. The leading essayist Aldous Huxley defines essay
in the following way - “Like the novel, the essay is a literary device for saying
almost everything about almost anything, usually on a certain topic. By tradition,
almost by definition, the essay is a short piece, and it is therefore impossible
to give all things full play within the limits of a single essay. But a collection
of essays can cover almost as much ground, and cover it almost as thoroughly, as
can a long novel”. The word "essay" originated from French word
"essai" which means "effort, sketch". It reflects the essence
of this notion. It is a personal attempt to give a challenging sketch on certain
issues. Every attempt is different and presents versatile ideas, but people must
not be afraid of writing even knowing that it is too complicated to express themselves
in a proper way.
Essay should be structured in various sections
that make it easy for the readers to read and follow the author’s thoughts clearly.
To show your grasp of the ideas studied learners have to express them in their own
words. Writing essays is not the easy task. Nevertheless, it is a good way to stimulate learning and critical thinking
that makes writing a valuable part of any language course. It enables learners to display the skills and abilities which they possess
and remaining an important method of assessment, helps to discriminate between students,
to test their intellectual capabilities. Raimes points out
“Writing helps students to learn. Firstly, it reinforces the grammatical structures,
idioms, and vocabulary that teachers have been teaching their students. Secondly,
when students write, they also have a chance to be adventurous with the language,
to go beyond what they have just learned. Thirdly, when students write, they necessarily
become very involved with the new language [14, p.58]
Professor Roy Wilkinson has identified a pyramid
of skills which teachers try to test with the help of essay assignment.
Tarvers explains that “Writing is a powerful instrument of thought. In the act of composing, writers learn about themselves and their world and communicate their insights to others. Writing confers the power to grow personally and to effect change in the world" [18, p.45] Moreover, the skill of writing essays is an essential tool in achieving the desirable grade in the courses studied. The basic essay-writing skills are not that difficult to acquire. The reason why so many students fail to do this is that not enough attention has been paid to teaching them. It is inevitable that schools, colleges and universities spend most of their time teaching the core subject-matter of a course, but hardly any time in advising students how to put their ideas down on paper in the form of an essay. Hedge points out that writing has been a neglected area of English language teaching for some years [11, p.101]. However, when people write down an account of ideas for others to read, they have to explain themselves particularly carefully. The leaps made while talking are not allowed. This makes writing probably the most challenging aspect of studying. White and Amdt promote that “Writing is a form of problem-solving which involves such processes as generating ideas, discovering a voice with which to write, planning, goal-setting, monitoring and evaluating what is going to be written as well as what has been written and searching for language with which to express exact meanings” [20, p.92].
The difficulties in writing essays as well as the process of teaching writing essays show the object of this course paper. The subject lies in the set of skills and hints for teaching learners to write better compositions. This coursework comprises the following tasks:
to specify the structure
of the essay and stages in writing it;
to clarify the skills and
habits necessary for the learners to write properly, clearly and persuasively, and
to present the viewpoint forcefully in writing;
to show the importance of
practicing writing topic and concluding sentences, organizing the paragraphs coherently,
using appropriate vocabulary, transitional devices and grammar;
to apply key writing structures
to learners’ writing;
to develop strategies for writing, revising, and
editing texts that are based on audience and purpose;
to make students aware of
the impact of their choice of words, sentences and organizational techniques on
the effectiveness of writing.
Learning solid essay writing skills while in
school is the foundation for even the most basic education. Thus, many students
do not have the slightest idea on how to begin a creative writing and how to express
their thoughts. It is important for learners not to suppress their ideas, they should
think widely, in various directions. The practical value lies in helping people to order their essays, to display
their knowledge in the well-structured way due to the standards of essay writing,
to provoke the learners to write and to believe in their own abilities, the originality
and validity of their thoughts. In addition to this, essay writing is a part of
a sequence designed to develop specific discourse skills.
1. Chapter 1. Fundamental considerations
in teaching writing essays
1.1 The importance of writing essays
Language learning requires mastering the four
basic skills a language consists of. Thus there is not only the awareness of grammatical,
lexical or syntactic rules needed but the writing process demands also mental power
of the writer. Writing is an effective tool to use for different purposes from sharing
ideas, corresponding to persuading others. Through writing people articulate their
ideas in another way than in speaking, their written product can be much more expressive
and powerful. Written works are permanent; they may have an impact much later in
time. Tarvers claims that “The purposes for writing vary widely, from discovering
the writer’s own feelings, to persuading others to a course of action, recreating
experience imaginatively, reporting the results of observation, and more” [18, p.48].
Having such potential, learners should be taught all the necessary rules and conventions
of writing as a skill to express themselves in the most appropriate way. Therefore
writing deserves an equal part in the classroom of learning language skills. Nowadays
more attention is paid to speaking and listening, developing writing skills seem
to be a deprived area. White mentions that “For some time, under the influence of
the audio-lingual approach to language teaching, it has been conventional wisdom
to regard speech as being of primary importance, with writing being placed a poor
second. Writing was regarded as being a somewhat inferior form of the language”
[20, p.57]. It is no longer seen as simply a means to retell
or recount information, but as a unique way to internalize and expand upon specific
knowledge, to retain the information, integrate it into the existing knowledge.
Neither a multiple choice test nor short answer quiz can provide students with the
opportunities to develop the kind of critical evaluative skills a thorough writing
assignment can. Robert Kellogg states " [Writing] is a vehicle for expanding
and transforming one's own knowledge base. [It] not only demands thinking, it is
also a means for thinking. By writing about a subject, one learns what one thinks
about the subject. This property of transforming knowledge is a fundamental component
of writing skill" [12, p.214]. Writing essays teaches
students to research, plan, organize and structure their activities.
Writing is an exercise
of mind requiring the mastery of techniques anyone can learn. While one system may work better for some and worse for others; there
are several general rules to stick to. There are many aspects
that a student will have to keep in mind. The first important thing to do is to
examine the title of the topic. It can be assigned or not. Sometimes it is easier
to have the topic given by the teacher. On the other hand, it may be an advantage
to take the topic you want. Both have their pros and cons because there are so many
things to write about that you may get lost. When the topic has been assigned, you
have some definite sphere to work on. Each topic can be seen from various viewpoints.
The student, however, should choose the one which is neither too narrow (it will
not have enough ideas to write about) nor too broad. Medecine is too general.
You can take only one aspect to discuss - Euthanasia in medical practice.
Then you must think about the purpose and the audience of
the essay. The writer should understand the key words which
will help to gather thoughts, to decide on the writing style and give some hints.
It is a good rule always to write the title of the essay across the top of the opening
page. It reminds you what you are supposed to be doing. An essay can be good in
almost every other way and may be judged poor because it ignores the issues presented
in the title. You are never just asked to write all you know about a subject, or
simply describe something. You are set a specific problem to reflect upon in the
light of what you have been studying. Everything you say in the essay should be
relevant to that task. You have to convince your readers that the point has some
bearing on the title.
writing takes much more than just excellent writing skills and understanding of
the topic. The whole secret lies in proper organization of an essay and following
a certain writing procedures. The essay goal is to convey
information, including the fact that you can write well. But it will not be achieved
if the readers do not understand the first few sentences or paragraphs, and stop
reading, or if they finish reading but fail to grasp the message. Learning how to
be a clear and accurate writer will help to make your essay readable and understandable.
There are some guidelines which show how to clarify writing. Moreover, it is important
to recognize that you must commit yourself to a process. A finished paper is the
result of the complex interaction of activities that include several stages of development
(see Table1), but some of them can be omitted. Nevertheless, these stages are believed
to reflect generally how successful writing develops.
Stages of writing
Generating ideas, strategies, and information for
a given writing task.
Prewriting activities take place before starting
on the first draft of a paper. They include discussion, outlining, freewriting,
journals, talk-write, metaphor etc.
Reflecting on the material produced during prewriting
to develop a plan to achieve the aim of the paper.
Planning involves considering your rhetorical stance,
rhetorical purpose, the principal aim of the text, how these factors are interrelated,
and how they are connected to the information generated during prewriting. Planning
also involves selecting support for your claim and blocking out at least a rough
Producing words on a computer or on paper that match
(more or less) the initial plan for the work.
Drafting occurs over time. Successful writers seldom
try to produce an entire text in one sitting or even in one day.
Moments when you aren’t writing but instead are reflecting
on what you have produced and how well it matches your plan. Usually includes
Pausing occurs among successful and unsuccessful
writers, but they use it in different ways. Successful writers consider “global"
factors: how well the text matches the plan, how well it is meeting audience needs,
and overall organization.
Moments during pausing when you read what you’ve
written and compare it to your plan.
Reading and writing are interrelated
activities. Good readers are good writers and vice versa. The reading that takes
place during writing is crucial to the reflection process during pausing.
Literally “re-seeing” the text with the goal of making
large-scale changes so that text and plan match.
Revising occurs after you have finished your first
draft. It involves making changes that enhance the match between plan
and text. Factors to consider usually are the same
as those you considered during planning: rhetorical stance, rhetorical purpose,
and so on. Serious revising almost always includes getting suggestions from friends
or colleagues on how to improve the writing.
Focusing on sentence-level concerns, such as punctuation,
sentence length, spelling, agreement of subjects and predicates, and style.
Editing occurs after revising. The goal is to give
your paper a professional appearance.
Sharing your finished text with its intended audience.
Publishing isn’t limited to getting a text printed
in a journal. It includes turning a paper in to a teacher, a boss, or an agency.
(Table 1. Preparing
To Teach Writing by James D. Williams)
Prewriting is the
first step in creating a successful essay. You need time to focus and shape your
thoughts which will result in a better final product. There are some prewriting
strategies that may be used both to generate new ideas and to clarify those you
already have. They can also be used effectively when you are faced with a number
of possible essay topics and must determine which vehicle is the best to express
your unique thoughts and experiences.
The following prewriting
techniques can be listed:
Concept mapping/webbing by Lauren Starkey
Taking stock with the 5Ws (How To Write Great Essays)
Reading good writing
Outlining by James D. Williams
Talk-write (Preparing To Teach Writing)
Depending on your
topic some invention techniques may work better than others. The overall goal when
using any method is to discover unique ideas.
spending a predetermined period of time writing nonstop for 5, 10, or 15 minutes,
focusing on a specific topic. It works best when you write in full sentences, but
phrases are also effective. The key is to keep writing without regard for grammar,
spelling, or worthiness of ideas. During this period, students keep generating words,
even if they cannot think of anything meaningful to say. Sometimes freewriting is
combined with an activity called looping, in which students stop freewriting
after 5 minutes and reread what they have produced. If they find a good idea on
the page, they use it as the basis for another freewriting period.
jotting down concepts, individual thoughts or ideas that come into your head associated
with the given topic, in note form and in random order. It involves creating a list.
It will be especially helpful when you have to establish a point of view on a topic
and support your position.
Mapping and webbing
are visual organizers that allow you to see easily the relationships between a number
of diverse ideas and are best used for exploring topics that are not complex. Put
your central idea or subject in the middle, and add subtopics or related ideas around
it in any order. Or draw a box with your subject written in it, and continue adding
boxes, connected to each other by lines, showing the development of your idea.
Taking stock with
the 5Ws technique is particularly useful for choosing an essay topic and for focusing
on it. Unlike some of the other prewriting techniques, taking stock should be done
deliberately, with great thought given to each question. Take a moment to give the
best answer you can for each question. Concentrate on the standard W’s: Who, What,
Where, When and Why. These questions will help you to quickly develop a great deal
of information about your subject.
Reading good writing can make a difference with your own. Reading mediocre writing
won’t help your essay, but if you consistently read great writing, syntax, structure,
and style can improve under the influence of writers who are masters at their craft.
multiple points of view on a given topic. Teachers usually initiate it by asking
the class questions regarding how to proceed. Discussions tend to be most helpful
when they occur a day or so after students receive an assignment. The time in between
allows students to begin formulating a plan that they can modify and enrich through
Outlines can be
a very beneficial invention device if used properly. However, the focus is very
often on the structural details. First, group related ideas together, looking for
major topics (which can be headings) and minor ones (which can be subheadings, examples
or details). Outlines start with general points and shift to specific ones. Define
your major points, and rearrange them until they make sense and follow a logical
progression. You will be able to see the relationships between your ideas and determine
their importance. If you need more supporting details or facts-subcategories-you
can add them now. The outline of the possible topic is suggested below:
is based on the perception that speaking, listening, reading, writing and thinking
are intimately related and mutually reinforcing. It involves asking students to
construct a plan mentally and to deliver an oral composition to the class. Classmates
provide suggestions and comments designed to help improve and elaborate the plan.
The next step is to begin writing. It is usually easier as a result and tends to
be more successful because a person has to understand a topic to explain it to others.
A valuable benefit is that making such oral presentations is likely to increase
one’s self-confidence about speaking in public  Zoellner
Metaphor is a feature of style. However, it can be a powerful model-building
device that helps students generate ideas and information. The novelist Richard
Wright left in his Black Boy a valuable record of how metaphor can work as
an invention technique. In the first draft of this essay Wright listed a number
of books that had influenced him, and then he stated that “these books were like
eyeglasses, enabling me to see my environment”, then he changed from “eyeglasses"
to “eyes" (IIdraft) books were no longer “eyes" but “windows” (final draft).
He told, for example, that the books that influenced him were “eyes" through
which he could see the world as the authors saw it, enabling him to “understand
and grasp" his own experiences. It allowed Wright to become the agent of seeing
and not the others’ sight beneficiary.
Not only writing stages and techniques are important, but also there are problems with syntactic organization of a text and cohesion which are the basis for writing. Byrne describes that “Writing is learned through a process of instruction - we have to master the written form of the language and to learn certain structures which are less used in speech, or perhaps not used at all. We also have to learn how to organize our ideas in such a way that they can be understood by a reader” [3, p.98]
Learners should pay
special attention to the structure and organization of the essay. It can take many
forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has
a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. Teacher should teach students step by step how to express their thoughts
on the paper, in which order, what linking words to use, what common mistakes to
avoid. If you want to teach somebody to write different things, your task is to
make the process of writing interesting. The problem is that very often people imagine
essays just in form of boring, serious writings on scientific or educational topics.
As the result, they have no desire to do such things or to learn how to do them.
At first, learners can try writing without any plans, so that to be used to putting
ideas into the written form. Show that essay topics can be various. Teach people
creativity; show them how to use imagination. Slowly you should make this process
more complex. Try to teach them to recognize topic sentences and to write their
own, to conduct a substantial research on the topic, back up statements with samples,
introduce how to organize paragraphs in a coherent way, what vocabulary to use;
give them samples of the essays to study and then ask different questions related
to them etc. When learners go through various examples of
essays, these will serve as guides and help in writing the assigned task. Give them a hint to successful writing by introducing the structure of
the essay which should be preserved. It is difficult for creative mind to be made
to write within some definite framework; it is suppressed by structural dependence.
Notwithstanding, it may be a very easy task if you are taught at the beginning of
your learning process to use various writing techniques and structural models, to
express yourself according to some general rules in writing essays. Structure is
important in essay. It will help to follow dynamic interchange
of author's arguments, supporting evidence and questions. The reader will be able
to grasp the message encoded by the writer. The essay must have at least three paragraphs.
Academic writing, however, usually comprises five paragraphs organized in a coherent
way: introduction, body with mainly three paragraphs, and conclusion. Each paragraph should have a clear, singular focus. One of the commonest
students’ errors in writing essays is shifting topics within the same paragraph,
rather than continuing to develop the idea they began with. If you want to start
a new topic, begin a new paragraph instead. Paragraph usually consists
of the topic sentence, the supporting sentences and the concluding one. A topic sentence is generally the first sentence of the paragraph. It
is concise and emphatic. Topic sentence
contains the main idea of the paragraph, thus orienting the reader to the purpose
of this piece of writing. To attract attention they sometimes
appear in the form of rhetorical questions. When you use
topic sentences, your reader will find it easier to follow your thoughts and arguments.
Supporting sentences illustrate the main idea with examples and explanations, give
details, elaborate on causes and effects, comparison and contrasts, anticipate and
respond to counterarguments. The concluding sentence finishes the paragraph by giving
the final comment. The following exercise can help in teaching students to distinguish
these types of sentences.
Find the topic, concluding and supporting sentences
in the paragraph given:
A stitch in time saves nine. My mother, who
likes sewing, used this simple saying to teach me the value of working on problems
when they are still small. Originally, the saying referred to sewing - if you have
a small hole in a shirt? You can repair it with one stitch. But if you wait, the
hole will get larger, and it will take you nine stitches. This simple example reminds
me to take care of small problems before they become big problems.
When the learners know how to form
topic, supporting and concluding sentences, they are ready to start to write introduction.
It is the first and very important paragraph in the essay. It is here that the writer will have to get the attention of the reader,
introduce him to the theme and focus his attention on the main argument by presenting
a thesis statement. The introduction should always begin with something interesting.
The writer may begin his essay by giving an anecdote, posing a question to his readers,
presenting some interesting facts or by an exciting quotation relevant to the essay.
The topic should be introduced clearly. You must avoid repeating the exact words
of the topic, paraphrasing them will display your language skills. Concerning grammar
the introduction will normally be in the present tense (e. g. people complain),
or the present continuous (people are gradually becoming aware), or in the present
perfect tense (people have pointed out). It is normally organized by giving first
general ideas and leading to the more specific one, which is the thesis statement.
The latter should indicate the point of discussion. For example, if you write an
essay on hunger, you might say: World hunger has many causes and effects. This
is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, "world hunger"
can't be discussed thoroughly in five or ten pages. Second, "many causes and
effects" is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects.
Hunger persists in Africa because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile
soil is rarely profitable is a strong thesis. It narrows the subject to a more
specific and manageable topic and it also identifies the specific causes for the
existence of hunger. This thesis statement is a transitional "hook" which
moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the essay.
The main body explains
and supports the thesis statement, develops and illustrates the points you wish
to make. It should be the easiest part to write. Using your outline and notes, try
to rank ideas in order of importance. The first paragraph of the body should include
the strongest argument as well as the second one. The third paragraph, however,
usually presents the weakest argument. The main body is characterized by different
evidences and examples, it is necessary to discuss positive and negative aspects.
The writer can display power of analysis, personal understanding of complex topics.
Do not feel you have to put in everything you have learned. Relevance and independence
of thought are of importance. Take all the time you can to fully develop your ideas.
If you stop writing too soon, it may be because you have not explained yourself
completely, or backed up your assertions with examples. Do not simply state that
something is true, prove it. There may be several ideas which must be supported.
Not every supporting point will have details, though, some will have several details.
Those make your essay stand out. You should include, however, only information that
pertains to your topic. Qualify your answers for accuracy. If you cannot remember
an exact date, approximate-“late eighteenth century" is better than 1988 if
1988 is incorrect. When you feel that you expressed everything you wanted, your
thoughts are backed up by evidences and examples, you may proceed with concluding
part of your essay.
The concluding paragraph
must summarize the entire essay and reiterate the thesis statement presented in
the introduction. It must be remembered that new facts and data cannot be presented
here. A strong concluding statement at the end helps to convince the reader. You
can effectively reinforce the points, made in the body but remember to reword them
and keep the conclusion fresh. It's not enough just to restate
your main ideas - if you only did that and then ended your essay, this part would
be flat and boring. You should not use phrases such as “I
wrote about" or “This essay was about. ” Drawing a conclusion often involves
summarizing of the main points already made. A common mistake is to write the end
that does not follow logically from what has been written before. This is sometimes
called a ‘non-sequitur’. If you have the time, end with something more interesting
giving a thought-provoking quotation, talking about consequences
or implications, stating what action needs to be done. A
speculative conclusion refers to a future possibility or prediction, such as “perhaps
years from now. ” If you write about a problem, try to offer a solution. If you
have a fitting quotation, use it to finish your essay. The person quoted does not
have to be famous, but the quote should help you to make your point. Although be
aware that you cannot overcome a weak essay with a clever conclusion. Your conclusion
is the final impression left with your reader. Author need
to say something that will continue to simmer in the readers’ minds long after they
have put down this essay.
2. Chapter 2
to use and the tips for writing depend on the essay type. Essays consist mainly
of assignments set by instructors for the students to test their understanding and
knowledge levels on a particular topic, abilities to present
the balanced comprehension of it. There are many different
types of essays a professor may choose from. The teacher may ask students to write
a discursive essay to check their analytical skills or may instruct them to write
a descriptive essay to simply test the power of expression and logical thinking
of his students. Choice of essays also to some extent depends on the subject studied.
Different purposes and types of writing aim at various members
of the discourse community.
It is easier to teach at first descriptive essays
and then discursive ones. The former are personally relevant to the students. They
may focus on people, places and buildings, objects and events. It is not so simple
to describe what you observe. The best way to create a vivid
experience for your readers is to make use of senses: sight, sound, smell, touch,
taste. They enable readers to imagine
or experience something by themselves. Sensory details appeal
to their emotional, physical or intellectual sensibilities. Description uses tools
such as denotative and connotative language, metaphors and similes to arrive at
a dominant impression.
Brief information about who the person is, where/how
Name/location/population/state the reason for choosing
this or that
Set the scene, name/type, time/ date, place, reasons
Physical appearance: height, age, facial features,
hair, clothing etc.
Personality/behavior with justifications and examples
Life/lifestyle, hobbies, beliefs, interests, everyday
Explanations and examples
General features and particular details: surroundings,
facilities, exterior/interior, places to go, free-time activities
Explanations and examples
Description of event itself: food, atmosphere, activities
Explanations and reasons: its significance
Comments, feelings and opinion about the person
Feelings, opinion and give a recommendation
Comments, feelings and opinion
Consider the topic carefully and describe things
relevant to it, some points may be unnecessary. When writing on the topic “Describe
a person who has done a great deal for others, and explain how he or she has managed
to achieve so much”, it will be irrelevant to describe appearance. The description
must be supported with examples; use a variety of adjectives to make a composition
more interesting. The adjectives must be ordered in the following way: opinion,
size/weight, age, shape, colour, pattern, origin, material. It is advisable not
to use them one after another; it will sound unnatural.mild language should be used
when the learner wants to describe some negative qualities (e. g. tend to, seem
to, can occasionally etc. - Peter tends to be impolite). To avoid simple sentences
and same structures, different linking words are to be introduced.
There are various descriptive types of essays.
Three main of them are presented below and suggested by Virginia Evans.
My next-door neighbour
Mavis has been my neighbour for six years. I first
met her when she knocked on my door and asked for a spade because she hadn't yet
unpacked hers. She had only moved in two days before.
Physically, Mavis looks younger than most other women
in their late sixties. She is of average height, neither fat nor thin. Her plump
round face is framed by a mass of wavy white hair and her sparkling blue eyes
show her humour and friendliness. She prefers wearing casual, comfortable clothes.
I don't think I have ever seen her in a perfectly ironed suit.
As for her personality, Mavis's most striking characteristic
is her generosity. My house, as well as most of our neighbours', nearly always
has a vase of flowers from her garden in the living room. Mavis is very good
- natured and always has time for a chat. She is also patient. She hardly ever
gets annoyed about anything, except when children pick her favourite roses and
lilies. However, she tends to be quite stubborn - once she has made a decision,
nothing can change her mind.
Mavis always seems to be busy doing something. She
spends a lot of her time looking after her garden and often participates in local
flower shows. When she is not in her garden she is usually off somewhere raising
money for one charity or another.
All in all, Mavis is the perfect next-door neighbour.
Since the day she moved in, we have grown very close and I am very fond of her,
even if I am woken up by the noise of her lawnmower early in the morning!
London and its curiosities
Set in the heart of southern England, London is one of the biggest and busiest cities in Europe. A truly international city, London attracts millions of visitors every year from all over the world, yet never loses its
own unique charm.
London has many impressive
sights to see, ranging from the historical beauty of St. Paul’s Cathedral and
Big Ben to Buckingham Palace and the Houses of Parliament. In this city of contrasts,
you can be walking along one of the busiest streets, yet still be less than a
mile from one of the many huge, peaceful parks. London is a great cultural center,
too; the National Gallery contains one of the finest collections of classical
paintings in the world.
London is also well-known
for other things apart from its monuments and art galleries. Shoppers will enjoy
visiting the department stores on Oxford Street or they could try Harrods, the
most exclusive shop in London. For evening entertainment, the choice of theaters
is enormous. From the famous Southbank Theater complex to the smaller theaters
on Covent Garden, there is no end of plays to see. Soho and its pavement cafes
are also worth visiting.
London is an exceptional
place, a truly modern city that has managed to keep its traditional style and
sense of history. You may get exhausted in London, but one thing is certain; you
will never get bored, as Dr. Johnson once said, “When a man is tired of London,
he is tired of life. ”
Describe an annual event that you attended and explain
why you enjoyed it
About four years ago I was invited to a Halloween
party at the home of a friend. I was reluctant at first but I decided to go to
help out with the arrangements.
On the afternoon of the party, I drove to my friend's
house with a huge box of materials which I thought might be useful for the preparations.
The children were full of enthusiasm as they worked on their masks and costumes.
But the best part of all was making the lanterns. I was amazed at the imagination
that the children showed when cutting grotesque faces out of the hollowed-out
pumpkins. The mood of anticipation was so intense that, by the time the last costume
had been made, I was as excited as the children.
By six o’clock, the party was well under way and
the house was full of screaming children, with me running around in a mask trying
to scare them. At one point during the evening, prizes were awarded to the children
who made the best costumes. Games were organized, including one where the children
had their hands tied behind their backs while they tried to pick apples out of
a barrel of water using only their teeth. When the party finally ended, the children
left in a noisy group, running ahead of their parents and doing their best to
scare any unfortunate passers-by.
Rediscovering what it is like to have fun without
feeling embarrassed was a fantastic experience. My initial hesitation disappeared
once I had decided to get involved. Helping with the children’s games enabled
me to enter into the party spirit. I saw it as an opportunity to experience the
sheer joy that comes so naturally to children.
Another thing that made it particularly enjoyable
occasion was that it bought back memories of my childhood experiences. I remembered
my own excitement when we were dressing up in scary costumes, and the thrill of
going from house to house, bags held open for whatever goodies would be put in
when we shouted, 'Trick or treat! ' I also remembered the time we had been chased
by a stingy neighbour after spraying his windows with shaving foam.
Since those days I had nearly forgotten about Halloween,
but this party gave me so much pleasure that now it is a regular fixture in my
diary. I think everyone should have the chance to feel like a child at least once
Discursive writing is a good
way to learn how to logically structure an argument and how to anticipate and counter
the arguments of the other side. There exist various types of discursive essays:
For and against essay is a formal piece of writing
where the writer should consider the topic from various perspectives. Arguments
are to be presented in a fair and objective way with as many justifications, examples
and reasons as possible.
Opinion essay requires the author’s opinion on a
topic stated clearly from various viewpoints, supported by reasons and/or examples.
An opposite point of view should also be presented. It comprises a combination of
personal and argumentative approaches. The writer’s main task is to persuade the
reader of author’s rightness and to make readers take the same position.
Essay suggesting solution to problems makes a thorough
analysis of the problem, states its causes clearly, giving possible ways of solving
it at the same time. The consequences and the results of the suggested actions are
For and Against
Solution to Problems
State topic (without giving your opinion)
State the topic and your opinion
State the problem and its causes/effects
Arguments for and justifications, examples or reasons
Arguments against and justifications, examples or
View points and reasons/examples
Opposing viewpoint and reason/example
Suggestions and results
Balanced consideration or opinion
Summarize/restate your opinion
Summarize your opinion
Virginia Evans gives the following samples of
For and against essay
Censorship is necessary in modern society
Censorship is an issue which frequently generates
a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining that it is vital in
order to protect society, whilst opponents claim that it is an unjustifiable restriction
of public access to information.
Firstly, all countries have secrets which must be
safeguarded for reasons of national security. For instance, if an enemy country
were to acquire such highly sensitive information, the effects could be catastrophic.
Consequently, governments have to have the power to restrict access to information
concerning areas such as the armed forces or particular aspects of foreign policy.
Secondly, it is often argued that censorship is necessary
to prevent the broadcast and publication of obscene material which is considered
offensive or harmful to public morals. Many people feel that, without censorship
the public would be constantly subjected to material that the majority would find
offensive. For this reason, the government has a duty to impose certain restrictions
on the mass media by censoring films and texts which contain explicit scenes of
sex, violence or foul language.
In contrast, opponents of censorship point out that
when it is abused by governments, censorship becomes an instrument used to misinform
society and maintain power. In order to control the flow of information which
riches the public, repressive regimes try to put constraints on the media, thus
denying citizens the right to information owing to the fact that governments believe
it may lead them to seek greater freedom.
Furthermore, it is generally felt that mature adults
are able to make informed choices about what they watch, read and listen to and
should, therefore, be permitted to make their own decisions. For example, some
comedians make use of offensive language taboo subjects in their performances.
Critics of censorship argue that the only people who will watch or listen to such
material are adults who have made a conscious decision to do so. Thus, it is claimed,
it is unjust to censor material like this since it is not forced upon people who
may subsequently be offended by it.
All things considered, it can be concluded that a
certain degree of censorship is always necessary. The best course of action would
be to attempt to achieve a balance between the requirements of the country and
the public on the one hand, and individuals’ rights on the other.
Although the position of women in society today has
improved, there is still a great deal of sexual discrimination.
Throughout this century, the role of women within
society has changed, and the majority of people feel that this change is for the
better. More women work than ever before, and it is accepted in Western culture
that many women now have careers. Nonetheless, in my opinion there is still a
great deal of sexual equality has been achieved is not altogether accurate.
To begin with, many women find it very difficult
to return to work after having children. The main reason for this is that there
are rarely any provisions made for childcare in the workplace and, in these cases,
women are forced to find someone to look after the children while they are at
work. Obviously, this can prove to be a time-consuming and expensive process,
yet it must be done if mothers are to be able to resume their careers.
Secondly, the traditional views of the position of
women within society are so deeply ingrained that they have not really changed.
For instance, not only is the view that women should stay at home and look after
their family still widely held, but it is reinforced through images seen on television
programmes and advertisements. An example of this is that few men are ever seen
doing housework on television, since this is traditionally thought of as “a woman’s
Thirdly, since families often need two incomes in
order to enjoy a good standard of living, a woman finds herself doing two jobs:
one at home and one at the office. So, it could be said that a woman’s position
has, in fact, deteriorated rather than improved, with the result that women carry
the burdens of equality but get none of the benefits.
In contrast, there are some people who claim that
the problem of sexual discrimination no longer exists. They point out that women
do, after all, have legal rights intended to protect them from discrimination.
In addition, a few women are now beginning to reach top positions as judges, business
leaders and politicians, while a number of other previously all-male professions
are opening their ranks to women. Nonetheless, these examples are not the norm
and discrimination is still very much with us.
Taking these points into consideration, I would say
that the position of women has improved only slightly. While, rules and laws have
changed, it is the deep-rooted opinions of people within society which are taking
a longer time to evolve. Needless to say, until these attitudes have changed,
sexual discrimination will remain a problem which we all need to face and fight
Solutions to problems essay
What could be done to improve the lives of the elderly?
For many elderly people the latter part of their
life is not a time to relax and enjoy retirement, but rather a difficult and unhappy
period, owing to financial worries, failing health and loneliness. As life expectancy
increases, the average person lives well beyond the age of retirement. As a result,
the elderly make up an ever-increasing percentage of society, which makes it more
important than ever for a real effort to be made in improving the lives of senior
One way to deal with the situation would be to ensure
that the elderly have enough money on which to live. Obviously, when a person
stops working, they still require a source of income to cover their basic needs
such as food, accommodation and heating. A clear solution to the problem is for
the government to make sure that the state pension is adequate for these needs.
Furthermore, free financial advice should be made available to retired people
so that the stress of worrying about money could be reduced as far as possible.
Steps should also be taken to overcome problems the
elderly face as a result of deteriorating health due to old age, and inadequate
health-care provisions. Again, the responsibility should fall to the government
to provide access to the best health care available, which may necessitate paying
for residential homes where the elderly can have round-the-clock nursing, or,
at the very least, providing medication free of charge to all people over a certain
age. As a result, old people would enjoy not only better health, but also peace
of mind from the knowledge that they need not fear falling ill and being unable
to pay for treatment.
The lives of old people could also be improved if
attempts were made to address the problem of social isolation which so many of
them face. If we organised trips for the elderly to community centers, visits
from social workers or free bus passes to allow pensioners greater mobility, the
effect would be alleviate the problem of loneliness which marks the lives of so
many old people living alone far from their families.
One final suggestion, which would help enormously,
is to change the attitude of the community towards its older members, who are
all too often seen as a burden on society and dismissed as having little to do
with modern life. We need to be taught from an early age to respect the views
of old people, and appreciate their broader experience of life. This would help
society as a whole, and encourage appreciation of the role that old people can
still play today.
To sum up, there are several measures which could
be taken to improve the lives of old people. If the government and individuals
alike were to help, it would make retirement and old age a time to look forward
to, rather than dread.
A discursive essay presupposes following
some rules. It should be written in a formal style. Topic sentence for introducing
the subject of each paragraph, passive voice and impersonal constructions, use of
quotations and references to other sources, linking words and phrases are of great
importance. The learners should avoid contracted forms and colloquial expressions
(e. g. lots of), over-generalizations (e. g. I absolutely detest…) and too emotional
expressions, a series of simple sentences. It is better to combine simple sentences
with complex and compound ones.
The learners must be successful in
their compositions, knowing some basic requirements for essay writing and considering
essay types carefully. The paragraphs must be structured in a cohesive way. A logical presentation of facts is essential for the reader to understand
the topic well and approach the words in the right way. Language must be simple
and smooth flowing and care must be taken to avoid all kinds of grammatical, spelling
and punctuation errors.
Punctuation is vital to disambiguate
the meaning of sentences. There are some general rules concerning this.
The first word in a sentence, names of organizations,
people/places, days and months, nationalities and languages should be capitalized.
A capital letter is used for the most important words (nouns, verbs, adjectives
and adverbs) of titles of books, programs, films etc. (e. g. Indiana Jones and the
Comma is used:
to separate words in a list, phrases or clauses as
well as to separate long sentences link by as, or, and, but etc. For example, Tim
brought the sandwiches, and Diana brought a bunch of grapes for the picnic;
to mark a clause giving extra information which is
not essential for the meaning of the main clause (non-defining relative clause):
The Tate Modern, which is the newest museum in London, has excellent facilities
after certain linking words (e. g. however, therefore,
for example, to sum up etc.)
when if-clause begins the sentence, no comma is used
when the if-clause follow the main one.
are used with possessives, e. g. The professor’s secretary, and to show contractions,
e. g. It’s generally believed …However, they are not common in academic English. Semi-colons
(;) show the link between two connected phrases when a comma
would be too weak and a full stop too strong. They are quite rare in most types
of writing. Colons (:) introduce
explanations, e. g. The meeting was postponed: the Dean
was ill, and start a list, e. g. Two factors were discussed: cultural and social.
Question mark is
used to end a direct question; however, we use a full stop to end an indirect question
(e. g. He asked me what I was doing.) Exclamation mark is used in exclamatory sentence.
Italics are used to show the titles of books, plays, films: Romeo and Juliet as
well as for names of hotels, restaurants. Hyphens (-) are
used with certain compound words: well-educated/co-operative/four-year-old.
Dots (…) are used to show omissions. Brackets () are used
to contain information of lesser importance: There were
only 40 marriages (out of 14.900) in which ‘baker’ was listed. Single quotation marks are used to emphasize a word, to give quotations
from other writers and to show direct speech: The word ‘quiz’
was first used in the nineteenth century. ‘Can anyone find the answer? ’ asked the
lecturer. Double quotation marks are used to show quotations
inside quotations (nested quotations): As Murphy has observed:
‘Concepts of “typical” need careful examination’. They are also used for the names of articles and chapters, but for book and journal titles
use italics. Full stops and commas are placed inside quotation marks. You should also focus on the grammar concepts for the essay to have sense.
Another issue to consider is the language
you use. Inappropriate language leads to misunderstanding
or communication breakdown. The common error is the use of translation from the
mother tongue. By translating word for word the student uses the wrong sentence
patterns and the wrong vocabulary. Another cause of writing errors is the choice
of long and complicated sentences with far too many supplementary clauses. The longer
the sentence the bigger is the chance of making mistakes and failing to communicate
the meaning. Therefore, in the early stages of your writing choose short and simple
sentences to build up a basic essay-writing style. You can play with more complex
words and grammatical structures later, when you have acquired some basic techniques.
Do not use words specifically to show off your vocabulary. In most cases when an
essay is given to write, there is a word limit stated, i. e. an indication how many
words you should not exceed in your composition. Having a limit is a way to ensure
that you select the most relevant words to express your thoughts. Moreover, keeping
to the word limits is a part of good practice and a sign that you possess certain
skills. The best way to stay within the limits is to plan your essay. William Strunk states that "Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence
should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the
same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary
parts." [p.29] Similarly in an essay, all sentences and paragraphs must have
an essential function and purpose. Knowing that all synonyms have a subtle nuance
of meaning making it distinct from the other words will help you avoid random substitutions
of words that merely seem to look better. It is important
to choose the right word to convey meaning. For instance, Devlin's essay predicates that a society consists of a group of
people brought together by a common set of morals and assurances is not the best choice of words. Whereas the sentence Devlin's essay
asserts that a society consists of a group of people brought together by a common
set of morals and beliefs displays your proper knowledge of vocabulary.
On the other hand, according to Truman Capote, "The greatest pleasure of writing is
not what it is about, but the music the words make." [p.14] Nevertheless, your
lexis must be rich and relevant to the topic to express everything you mean from
different perspectives. Editing the language can be tedious, but it is essential
to polish it to the point that it is pleasing to read and has literary style. The
style must display a variety of sentence types, well-chosen
connectors and appropriate vocabulary. To establish emphasis learners can employ
subordination and coordination. This allows you to emphasize
different parts of the sentence, so that the more important phrase is clear. Coordination
involves combining clauses where neither clause is more emphasized than the other.
On the other hand, subordination involves designating one clause to be more important
than the other. It is up to you to decide what type to choose. It is essential to
mention the role of linking words in this case.
your thoughts in clear sentences that flow logically from one to another. To be
coherent a paragraph must satisfy two criteria: relevance (every idea must relate
to the topic) and effective order (ideas must be arranged in a way that clarifies
their logic or their importance and help the reader to follow and understand the
writer’s thoughts). An appropriate use of paragraphs is an essential part of writing
well-structured essays: In addition to problems
of obesity, America's youth also suffer from increasing amounts of psychological
stress. The transition is made from obesity to psychological
stress providing a bridge between paragraphs. Transitions are useful when moving from
paragraph to paragraph, from one point to another to form logical flow. Every essay
you write should have this feeling of continuity. Connectors will occur throughout
your essay. The most common ones are those that are used for listing, addition,
consequences and emphasis.
as soon as
not only…but also
the same as
on the other hand
on the contrary
despite/in spite of
in theory…in practice
as well as
as a result
due to/owing to
for this reason
first/to start with/to begin with
first of all
secondly/after this (that) /next/then
finally/lastly/last but not least
the former…the latter
in my opinion
in my view
to my mind
(personally) I believe
I feel strongly that
it seems to me that
I think that
the first (dis) advantage
one (dis) advantage
another (dis) advantage
the main (dis) advantage
the greatest advantage of
all things considered
to sum up
to crown it all
all in all
taking everything into account
on the whole
Cause and effect:
because, as and since introduce a cause; so, therefore, consequently
and as a result introduce an effect. Because, as and since are usually used
in the middle or at the beginning: I stayed at home, because it was raining. Because
it was raining, I stayed at home. Therefore, consequently and as a result are used
at the beginning; it is not possible with so. It was raining; therefore, I stayed
at home. It was raining. Consequently, I stayed at home. Due to/owing to and because
of introduce a cause in the form of a noun phrase: Due to the rise in oil prices,
the inflation rate rose by 1.25%.
The most common
way of giving examples is by using for example or for instance. Namely
refers to something by name, i. e. There are two problems: namely, the expense and
the time. Such as cannot begin a clause. It is followed by a noun or gerund.
Ideas are often linked by and. In a list,
you put a comma between each item, but not before and: We discussed training, education
and the budget. Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis: We also spoke
about marketing. Do not usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start
a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition or In addition
to this. You can use also with not only to give emphasis: We are concerned not only
by the costs, but also by the competition. As well as can be used at the
beginning or in the middle of a sentence. Too goes either at the end of the sentence
or after the subject and means as well: They were concerned too/They, too, were
concerned. Moreover and furthermore add extra information to the point
you are making.
Sequencing ideas: the former and the latter are useful when you want to refer to one of two points:
Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the
first term and the latter is studied in the final term. Firstly, secondly, … finally
(or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
Contrasting ideas: but is more informal than however. It is not normally used at the
beginning of a sentence He works hard, but he doesn't earn much. He works hard.
However, he doesn't earn much. The use of the linking words ‘However’ at the beginning
of the second paragraph and ‘Nevertheless’ at the start of the third paragraph
provides essential signposts for the reader to follow the argument that is being
made. Despite and in spite of must be followed by a noun. If you want to
follow them with a noun and a verb, you must use the fact that: Despite the fact
that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees. In theory… in practice…
show an unexpected result: In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in
practice, they often don't have enough time.
Do not overuse these connectors. It is very
boring to read one of these at the beginning of each sentence. Make yourself familiar
with the most useful ones and be careful to use them accurately or your logic will
appear faulty. With the help of linking words a continuity or flow is established
for the essay that reassures the reader that you know where you are going without
guessing how one paragraph relates to the other.
in understanding and following the writer’s thoughts which are not connected in
a cohesive piece of writing may be caused by plagiarizing. While it is always good to use quotes to show that you have read widely,
you should make sure that the essay is written in your own words, otherwise you
may be accused of cheating. Students are aware of the many Internet sites offering
essays. What they may not realize is that teachers are aware of them. Tutors are
usually very familiar with the difference between the way students write and the
way experienced authors write, and soon notice when a student lurches between an
‘expert’ and a ‘beginner’ style. The advice is simple: write your own essay. Do
not even waste your time reading other people’s essays looking for ideas. It is
one thing to read to understand the process, and another to take these ideas and
words as your own. This approach will not get you good marks. Indeed, when tutors
reveal this they will tend to assume you understand very little and you will get
lower mark. Worse, you do not develop your own writing style. If you persist in
parroting other people's words rather than expressing your own thoughts, then you
are likely to remain a beginner for a long time. And you will not learn much about
the ideas in the course either. It is difficult to elaborate various ideas, to present
the topic from different perspectives. That is the reason why some students are
tempted to ‘lift’ sections of words from textbooks and articles and put them in
their essays without using quotation marks or acknowledging the source. When you
are quoting draw upon a wide variety of sources to ensure
that you have examined the issue from multiple perspectives. There are three main
ways to integrate quotations into your essay: (1) direct quotation, (2) paraphrase,
and (3) mixed quotation. Direct quotation involves quoting word for word one or
more sentences from an author or source. When you quote, be sure to introduce your
quotation with a signal phrase. It is another issue to consider. Signal phrase is
a clause before the quotation that identifies the author (e. g., "Jones says,"
or "According to Jones. "). It is essential to create a bridge between
your own voice and that of another you are incorporating into your essay. Avoid
putting the article title in the signal phrase. It is better to include paper itself
or the author. Suppose you are using a quotation that appears inside an article
written by someone other than the one saying the quotation. In other words, if you
are using, say, Judge Davidson's quotation that appears within Oliver Gardner's
article, you cite it by writing "qtd. in" following the quote: According
to Judge Davidson, "just law is the foundation of a just society" (qtd.
in Gardner). Paraphrase, instead of quoting the author word for word, involves putting
the original phrasing into your own words. Be careful to substantially reword the
original, however. If you leave just several words in a row unchanged, it will be
considered plagiarism. Mixed quotations are a mix between direct quotation and paraphrase.
Mixed quotations involve paraphrasing half of the original but mixing in a few direct
selections from the author. When you insert them, be sure to blend in the quotation
with the grammar of your own sentence. The sentence as a whole must flow smoothly.
To achieve this you may need to omit or add words from or to the original. To omit
words, insert an ellipsis. in place of the words you take out. Ellipses always indicate
omission. To add words, put them inside brackets  to indicate the insertion. Notice
that there are spaces between the ellipses’ dots and that the brackets are square,
not rounded like parentheses. For instance, Cummings asserted that the poet's imagination
and his "preoccupation with the Verb" results in an ability to surpass
normal standards of logic and create "an irresistible truth [in which] 2 x
2 = 5". Notice that the words "in which" inside brackets are insertions.
You needed to add them so that the sentence would flow grammatically. Nevertheless,
support your quotations with commentary, interpretation, or analysis. Avoid just
dropping in the quotation and then immediately moving on, assuming the reader fully
understands the meaning, purpose, and application of the quotation just presented.
You should practise expressing your perceptions
and observations in your own words. They may not come out very well to begin with
but like a learner in any field you have to be prepared to make mistakes sometimes
and allow others to help you learn. When you are writing an essay you are often
working with ideas and terms you are not familiar with. This makes it difficult
for you to produce a clear, coherent argument. Learners have come to dislike writing
or fear it and usually they avoid it or steal other people’s thoughts. Though good
writing takes hard work and skill, it is possible for anyone to produce a lot of
writing with pleasure and to figure out what he or she really means without plagiarizing.
Do not be afraid to express your own opinions and feelings. You are a vital part
of the subject. No matter what the topic is, you are really writing about how you
understand it and feel about it. Good writing has personality. This doesn't
mean you have to flatter your readers or avoid saying something they may disagree
with. It is your job to guide them, to make their task as easy as the subject allows.
Armed with the belief in ability to express their thoughts
and knowledge of some basic writing rules, learners will feel confident and their
writing will begin to mature. The final task when writing an essay is to reflect
upon the feedback received from the tutor or other students. This may be invaluable
in helping to improve learner’s essay writing skills for future work.
On the whole, writing is a challenging
activity that “demands conscious intellectual effort, which
usually has to be sustained over a considerable period of time because cognitive
skills are involved” [20, p.38]. Everything should be taken
into consideration: writing techniques and stages, organization and structure, linking
phrases and punctuation, word choice and its implementation. It will help the reader
to decode the message and the essay will be written in a persuasive, powerful and
Writing is a crucial
and fundamental skill that must not be left out of the language learning process.
It tends to be both the most demanding and rewarding part of any course of study.
Critical thinking is crucial for effective writing. It is essential to understand
texts and to produce an essay that addresses complex topics.
A logical presentation of facts and data is
essential for the reader to understand the topic well. The essay should include
introduction, main body and conclusion. Each paragraph must be focused on separate
issue. Linking words are used to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can
follow writer’s ideas easily. They act as bridges between
paragraphs. All presented arguments must be backed by evidences.
Through the construction of detailed, reasoned and balanced
arguments students consolidate what you have learned and apply key principles and
theories in such a way that is both interesting to them and informative to the reader.
Learners must acknowledge the quotations clearly. Language
must be simple and smooth flowing and care must be taken to avoid all kinds of grammatical,
spelling, stylistic errors.
The learners must get used to implementing effective strategies for writing: prewriting, gathering information,
planning, structuring, drafting, revising, editing and presentation. They should have a purpose when writing, recognize that different audiences
have different needs, use a level of formality that is appropriate to the task,
and use writing conventions that are appropriate to a given situation, taking into
consideration different types of essays.
Writing essays is
a very important part of studying:
it deepens students’ learning of the subject studied,
consolidates their understanding;
it provides a unique form of feedback because the
process immediately becomes the product in writing;
it stimulates the mind to
use ideas to argue a case, support it with examples;
it enables students to enter into a dialogue with
a teacher through which they can extend and refine learners’ thinking and writing
skills. An essay opens up a teaching-learning dialogue;
it enables the tutors to assess the progress, and
learners to express their thoughts clearly and logically.
essays is essential to help write better essays, to delve into a topic more deeply.
Focusing on writing becomes a way of focusing on the methods, practices, social
and psychological processes of learning.
Ðîãîâà, Ã.Â. Ìåòîäèêà îáó÷åíèÿ àíãëèéñêîìó ÿçûêó. - Èçäàòåëüñòâî "Ïðîñâåùåíèå",
1975. - 312ñ.
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