The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties
The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties
The emergence of the first Polish socialist
and their activities on the territory of Belarus
before the first Russian revolution
At the end of XIX century underwent a
process of intensive development of Polish society, the establishment of the
Polish nation. It was the active struggle of the Poles for the preservation of
national identity in the absence of their own statehood. This process has faced
in Russia and Imperial Germany in the opposite process - the unification of
their own state organisms - and the attendant process of Russification and Germanization.
Polish socialist socio-political movement in the territory of the former
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, that Belarus and Lithuania, one of the main
ideological objectives, along with the idea of world revolution, considered the
national association of Polish forces in the struggle for national
self-preservation [4, pp. 19]. During this period, is beginning to emerge of
the socialist system of the Polish political parties, which in its programs
reflect the economic, political, cultural and religious aspirations of the
Polish working class, in particular, and in the Belarusian-Lithuanian lands [7,
The development of the Polish working class
and socialist movement in Belarus has been primarily associated with the
process of industrialization, development of industry and the increasing number
of workers. However, it is worth noting that the Polish socialist movement
mainly in Belarus was presented first national intellectuals and the nobility
and the very limited electoral, working the same movement as opposed to build
on the work of trade unions and had a massive character. However, the socialist
parties sought to lead the labor movement. The specificity of the Polish
workers and socialist movement in Russia Empire, and in Belarus, in particular,
was that the party had to operate underground. These conditions affect the
content of party programs, which aim to accomplishment of the socialist
revolution in Russia [25, pp.127].
Before the form of political party, the
Polish workers and the socialist movement has passed the phase of socialist
circles of self-organized students, workers and intellectuals under the
influence of Russia's revolutionary thought of the Populists and lobbied
socialist ideas among workers. In the late 70's. XIX century. these groups were
organized into structures characteristic of the political parties [6, pp.56].
In 1878 in Warsaw, was developed by the
first program of the Polish Socialist-Revolutionaries. Her sponsor was Ludwik
Waryƒskiego [9, pp.5]. Program primarily was based on Marxism. In the
works of historians, this program is known as the "Brussels Program".
It outlined the basic tenets of the Party: the social revolution of the means
of production, social equality. The importance of international co-workers to
fight for their rights. The national idea was not seen as the main, since the
main task of the commission considered the world socialist revolution, after
which the nation-state will disappear. Significant impact on the Brussels
program had the idea of M. Bakunin, promoted to replace the existing structure
of society "production associations" [26, pp.33].
Polish workers' socialist movement before
the first Russian Revolution 1905 - 1907 gg. Belarus was represented by the
following parties: I and II of the proletariat, the Union of Polish workers,
Polish Socialist Party (PPP), the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and
Lithuania (SDKP and L) [22, pp.12].
I proletariat - International Social
Revolutionary Party "proletariat" was the first Polish working-class
party. One of the founders of the party was Ludwik Waryƒskiego. In
September 1882, the working committee, which included A. Dembsky, G. Dulemba. S.
Kunitsky and others [21, pp.84], published a political program, which was a
continuation of the Brussels program. It reviewed the main provisions of the
Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, adapted to the realities
of the Kingdom of Poland [20, pp.112].
Software requirements of the Party
formulated in three sections, each of which corresponded to a specific area of
public life: economic, political and spiritual. The main economic demands were:
1). nationalization of the basic means of
production, including land,
2). abolition of private property, wage
The political demands were:
1). elimination of the autocracy, and 2). establishment
of democracy, and 3). equality of religions, and 4). freedom of speech,
association and assembly.
Main spiritual demands were:
1).compulsory free education 2). separation
of church and state [7, pp.214].
Since its inception, 25 Socialist Party
published pamphlets and about 20 leaflets. The party had its own press organs: the
clandestine newspaper "Poletariat" (Warsaw), a legal newspaper,
Robotnik (Krakow), a legal newspaper, Pshedsvit " (Geneva), the
theoretical journal" Valka klyas " (Geneva) [10, pp.39].
Largest party cells were in Warsaw, Lodz,
Modlin, St. Petersburg, Moscow. On the territory of the five provinces of the
largest Belarusian party cells I proletariat is in Pinsk, Vilna, Bialystok [15,
I Proletariat Party positioned itself
prominent parties. She ignored the national question, but the main purpose was
to unite the party workers in the struggle against autocracy and protect the
interests of the working class, as well as their organization in the struggle
for socialism [3, pp.211].
The ultimate goal of the party was a future
socialist state, which should happen with the help of the world socialist
revolution. The solution of these installations was planned to conduct with the
economic and political struggle. The main means of economic struggle - the
strike, the creation of illegal organizations working in the factories. The
political struggle was conducted with the help of terrorist acts against class
I proletariat actively cooperated with
Russia's revolutionaries, organized strikes at enterprises and made attempts of
individual terror. In 1884, as a result of seizures and was beheaded in 1886,
was completely destroyed [11, pp.314].
After the destruction I Proletarian Polish
socialist movement was dropped to the level of intellectuals circles of self. Further
strengthening the labor movement in Russia has pushed some Polish socialist
circles of attempts to create socialist party. In 1888 was created the Polish
Social-Revolutionary Party of the proletariat, dubbed II proletariat. Leader of
the party was Martin Kasprshak [16, pp.34].
Program II of the proletariat, despite the
fact that also relied on the basic tenets of Marxism, has undergone major
changes. Given the growth of the Polish national identity in the program was a
requirement for the autonomy of the Polish lands. Party to achieve its goals
focused on terror, because of what not acquired influence among the workers [5,
Ideological differences led to a split
within the party, leaving in 1889 a breakaway group of party functionaries
created the Union of Polish workers. The main objective of the Union was the organization
of mass labor movement. SBP Program has relied on two postulates: the struggle
for social rights of workers in and out of illegality, the denial of terror and
the transition to mass agitation and education among the workers [24, pp.449].
Growing in the Kingdom of the Polish
workers and socialist movement increasingly began to exaggerate, under the
influence of the emigre community, separatist slogans. Gradually the idea of
world revolution in the circles of the Polish Socialist intellectuals gives way
to program the postulate of the struggle for a sovereign and independent Poland.
Independence should have been, according to the leaders of the Polish Socialist
movement, appear key to the future of democratic transformations [18, pp.59].
In November 1892 in Paris, was created
Abroad Association of Polish Socialists (LAVS), and the program was approved
the struggle for independence, developed Boleslav Limanowa, Stanislav
Mendelssohn, Felix Pearl [7, pp.212]. They were dropped the idea of world
revolution and the socialist principle of cooperation of different countries. The
program also emphasized that the party defending the interests of workers and
organizes them in the struggle for socialism. Among the members of this party
was widely disseminated the idea of the historical rights of the Poles at the
non-Polish territory of Poland. One of the first on the subject spoke the
famous Polish Socialist S. Mendelson [10, pp.412].
Already in the program adopted at the Paris
Congress, determined that the new Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Roetsch will
be created as a voluntary federation of equal peoples, but it certainly was not
determined which areas and peoples must be that federation. Congress called for
the creation of the Belarusian Party of socialist orientation, establishing
publishing campaign literature in the Belarusian language.
Also in the Paris congress was attended by
representatives of the proletariat and the AB II, as well as members ZSPR where
he decided to merge their organizations into one party - Polish Socialist Party
(PPP). From 1894 on the territory of the Russia Empire were set up party cells
and to issue an illegal magazine "Eggman" [19, pp. 19].
PPP was not a monolithic party, and soon
within the party began to form separate faction. Many members drawn primarily
separatist party slogans. On the left flank of PPP supporters were of the world
socialist revolution. However, the two factions were behind the introduction of
more radical methods of struggle, mostly of terrorist methods. From May 1904 to
the PSP for example Russian Socialist Party began to create their own fighting
organization, is entrusted the execution of death sentences handed down the
party king's officials, as well as committing "exes", ie, armed
robbery party militants of public insurance schemes [17, pp.119].
Later, at the IV Congress of the PPP (June
1902) in the Paris program was amended, which concretized the previous
formulation as follows: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is a voluntary
federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine [19, pp.18].
Unlike other Polish Socialist Party, which
at first was put building a new socialist society, the program PPP stated that
the transition to socialism will happen immediately after the establishment of
an independent Polish republic. The main requirements were: 8-hour workday,
freedom of speech, labor unions, universal vote by secret ballot, free trials,
and education, the elimination of the army and the creation of militias, higher
wages [11, pp.466].
In September 1902 from the PPP party cells
operating in the territory of Belarus and Lithuania was founded Polish
Socialist Party in Lithuania, one of its founders was PI Noises. Lithuanian
working committee was in Grodno. Had its party cells in Vilna, Grodno. Bialystok,
Brest, Suwalki, Belsky. The organ of the Party was an illegal newspaper "Valka".
Published a leaflet in Yiddish, Polish, Belarusian, which presented its program
requirements. Invites the independent Lithuania, Belarus and the constituent
assembly in Vilna, called for overthrowing the monarchy by making the
revolution. It was on the positions of the federation of peoples inhabiting
Rossiyskuyu empire [2, pp.96].
Part of Polish Socialists (B. Veselovskii) disagreed
with the national program of the Party PPP, already in 1893 created a separate
political party called the Social Democracy of Poland (SDP), which two years
ceased to exist. Magazine "Right Robotnicza became the press organ of the
party. Only in January 1900 it was revived and merged with the Workers Union of
Lithuania (the union took place at a congress in Minsk), entitled "Social-Democracy
of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania. The creators of the party were Julian
Marhelevsky, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Adolf varsky and the chief party theoretician -
Rosa Luxemburg. Program PPP postulate the independence of Poland's leaders
SDKPiL considered unattainable utopia because of the full inclusion of lands of
the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the economic organism of Russia,
Germany and Austria-Hungary. However SDKPiL was more important to follow the
Marxist ideas of an international struggle of the proletariat for the abolition
of capitalism and establish a dictatorship [5, pp.55].
Denial of the slogan of Polish independence
influenced the fact that Poles are not the party has become very popular, so in
1904 the program was a party in this regard, several modified and, along with
socialist slogans slogan appeared on the autonomy of the Polish lands in the
Russia Empire [1. with.64].
From the above we can conclude that the
emergence of the Polish Socialist Party was a process which is organically
linked with the European trend of the growing influence of the labor movement
and Marxist ideology. In this process actively incorporated and five Belarusian
provinces, where the Polish Socialist Party had a significant constituency. The
specificity of the Polish socialist movement in the territory of Belarus was
the fact that he actively supported the Polish nobility. This in turn affected
the ideological postulates of the Polish Socialist Party, who saw his main task
in the acquisition of Polish lands (under this definition, understood the land
of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) for a minimum of autonomy within
Russia Empire, and the maximum - of national independence, which will in future
guarantee of democratic transformations.
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