of national coloring in the translation. P.5
and erasure of coloring. P.13
and anachronisms. P.22
Translation is a
mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes possible an exchange of information
between users of different languages by producing in the target language a text
which has an identical communicative value with the source text. This target text is
not fully identical with the source text as to its form originality content due
to the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the
source language and target text.
of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now it is one of important
themes to be studied/ During many years the USSR’s confines were closed and we
had not much opportunity to interact with many foreign countries. Of course, we
had a great number of foreign books but most of them were either classic books
or books of working class. So we had not opportunity to value all the
literature of foreign countries. the same case was in the foreign countries
when they could not get all the variety of Russian literature. They also preferred
to read our classics. The result of it was that they could know only archaic
coloring of the works and they had little information about national coloring
of Russia. And now then USSR does not exist any more every state that was a
part of the USSR can perform its own literature and hence national coloring.
The author of this
course paper considers that every literature work has its own national
coloring. Every work is written in the conditions of the country where the
author lives. Therefore the country with its language, mode of life, political,
historical, economical atmosphere and many other factors influence on the work
and it acquires the national coloring of the country even if the author does
not think of creating of any work that would be nationally colored.
The author of this
course paper considers the preservation of national coloring to be one of the
most difficult tasks for translator. National coloring is the property of the
country or its part. Every nation is proud of its history; traditions and it
would consider an offence if the translator does not manage to convey the
national coloring or if he conveys it wrong. That is why the translator must be
very attentive and careful with any kind of literary work.
Dialectics of national coloring
in the translation.
literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national problems,
features and at the same time the problems common to all mankind. Passing
from one nation to another literature enriches and extends the notion of
peoples about each other.
one of the most difficult cases to convey national coloring. Owing to the
translation very important literary works were able to appear in many other
countries and became available for people speaking other languages. The
translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.
coloring must be reflected adequately in the translation.
of national coloring reveals itself specifically in different fields of
spiritual culture of people and thus in various types of translation.
In the scientific
and technique literature the national psychological categories are less
expressed. The contents of such translations is valuable for all nations in
spite of their national specific.
for example, concerning natural sciences Darwin's theory or classic physics of
Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have the same meaning for all the
countries and nations. The original texts of natural-scientific works and their
translations do not differ much from this point of view.
there is another case in the field of social-political literature. It is
closely connected with the ideological society of the country with its history
and its historical specifics and it can never be separated from country
peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events of its time and it
is changed by the factors that reflect the notion development. National
peculiarities, problems and interests put impress both on the contents and
style of any author. In general the translation of social-political literature
is more similar with scientific literature.
the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others we shall see the specific of
author's personality and country specific.
national beginning of one or another country reflected in its literature
culture and in written culture that is especially interesting for us from the
translation point of view is the aggregate of characteristic peculiarities and
features that are specific for this nation and the constant historical
development of this nation.
It also has common to all mankind,
international character to which historical conditions give its own national
coloring, its self-expression. That is why we speak about national specific
character that was formed in the certain historical, social, geographic and
other conditions of this country. This specific character has enough concrete
expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen in one or
another nation form. There is national originality reflected in the literature and
other fields of social science and it has the more significance the more it is
rich in content, progressiveness, brightness: other nations are enriched
meeting with it discovering something new, interesting, useful and important
for them in this specific character.
difficulties while translating are connected most of all with conveyance of
national character of one or another work: the brighter it reflects national
life the more illuminate characteristic situations the more difficult for the
translator to find adequate functional figurative means.
be enough to recollect the difficulties that the translator faced with
translating wonderful works of outstanding American writer John Steinbeck.
Steinbeck is not only a deeply national, original writer but also a modern
writer. His creative work could appear only in our days. Many translators mark
out originality of his feature world and that is why the originality of his
language and style and the specific usage of popular speech and dialectisms.
For example: It’s the grapes! – Вот это жизнь! Got to blow town. – Mне пора
сматываться из города. Steinbeck often uses parallel literary
words and its dialect synonyms. For example: dish also translated
into Russian as красотка, деваха, jazz
is translated as болтовня, брехня, болтология.Therefore, the
translator must determine national peculiarities of the contents and the form
(that is language peculiarities, melodies, rhyme and so on) and substitute
national figurative means (realias, poetic images) for others that are
equivalents to the firsts in their national determination to convey its
national contents. The task of the translator is to find and rail the essence
of national peculiarities and specific character. Correct conveying of these
nationality elements opens the way to reveal internationality in the work. The
popular speech, dialectisms, social coloring, realias in Steinbeck’s works do
not only total the basing of his original stylistics but also express certain
over-text or behind-the-text peculiarities of his work, modern feelings system,
the exclusive rich fantasy, deep thoughts, piercing visible and spiritual
words, plastic gift and ability of transformation. All of these are united into
complete combination of original artistic picture of life together with unique
intellectual foreshortening of views on it. For example: Don’t you have a
silly bone in your body? - Неужели у вас нет
ни капли юмора?
Therefore it is not possible to
create only conveying realias, social coloring and so on to display of national
character while translating. It can be got only if the translator is able to
create the combination of varied forms of national character in the creative
work of one author or another in his works. National coloring is not an appendix
in the work but it is one of its main parts that total the work structure.
and specific character do not show that the work cannot be translated but they
show the creative character of the translation process. World literature knows
many examples when translators managed to convey all the originality of works
and these translations became masterpieces as their originals. Originality,
national coloring of the work is not lost in the succeed translations and that
is one of the main principals of creative translation activity. National
coloring like everything in the world is in the constant movement. Here the
translation ‘s role is enriched with one positive moment. His task is to carry
this constantly changing stability to readers of other nations. It is
interesting that for some works this process lasts more than ten years till the
form is adopted and reconstructed.
of national coloring in the translation very often depends on the prevailing
methods used in different literary schools.
volume of the translation is not underlining of national specifics of origin
text but it is the creation of its truly wholeness, finding of adequate
concrete form that is to help to show the unity of national and common to all
mankind coloring in the origin.
must convey adequately the national character connected with the real
representation of life. It means that he must know social conditions and nation
development whose literature he translates, he must know and understand the
specific spiritual way of life, find explanations of problems caused with
peculiarities of this nation and originality of his development. For example,
the figure of Marullo in John Steinbeck’s novel The winter of our discontent
is a collective figure of one of the representatives of Italian emigrant in
America who became rich in the period of 20-s years. Such figures were in many
other works of that period and like them Marullo is the bearer of common for
native Americans problems but at Steinbeck’s work this figure differs with his
national and artistic originality, caused by peculiarities of American
emigrants development at that period.
does every translator imply and what kind of tasks are in front of him? Why
does he begin to translate works from another national literature?
first he must know and understand the individuality, unique of figures. Every
artistic figure is unique according to its nature and irrespective of its
he must know and understand the essence of figures and ideas of works of social
he must take into account the national originality reflected in the work: its
plot, form, images, style, language etc.
he must reveal international coloring of the work that is significant for
different countries, states and nations elements.
he must reveal elements common to all mankind irrespective of their belonging
to any country, epoch, and nation.
and international, folk and common to all mankind activities are tightly
connected with each other and perform the complicate dialectic unity.
is not only outward form of these mutual relations; it is also dialectic unity
of the national and international coloring of its essence.
point of the translation is a bridge between national and international coloring.
That is why its main function is the turning of spiritual values of one nation
into the property of other nations; translation is transmission assisting to
mutual penetration and influence of national cultures. In our days we can be
witnesses of the powerful aspiration to mutual knowing, intellectual and
spiritual communication. Every nation culture goes out the limits of its own
country. Its relations with cultures of other nations development on
multilateral basis, they become more and more all embracing, acquiring bigger
easy to note that major part of themes and problems in the different national
literature coincide. But treatment to these themes and solutions of these
problems are various and original in the works of different cultures. For
example the theme of Motherland in three poems of A. Block, R. Burns and I. R.
to all mankind theme of Motherland these three poets express in different ways:
their lyrical characters express their feelings differently and have different
notions of Motherland. Ideal of Motherland in these poets' minds was formed in
the different nations and spiritual environment. Originality of their attitude
and artistic representation, originality of expressive means are the result of
environment and other factors.
Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is the most desirable dream, hope
that it will be the place of his last rest. In his poem Russia embodies its
beautiful nature; for Robert Burns Motherland is associated with the figure of
the mother's sadness missing her sons who fight for the freedom and will never
come back; in Beher's poem we do not hear cry but anger and appeal to revenge
for the outraged and ashamed Motherland. Grief, ache, anger and love are
lyrical moods common to these three poets.
this specific feature in the expression of common to all people feeling of love
to Motherland these poems would lose their concrete character.
character in spiritual literature does not exist abstractly; in every national
culture it acquires concrete forms. It is this dialect that must become ruling
principle in the translating activity. The translator must convey truly both
components on this unity keeping in his mind the frequent absence of confines
between national and international coloring because they interlace with each
translator only conventionally finds and marks out national, social,
individual, international, common to all mankind coloring.
cannot be separated in any artistic work. Their separating leads to the art
destroying. if the translator does not manage to convey this floating it means
that he has not able to create high-quality authentic translation.
erasure of coloring.
The notion of coloring appeared in
the literary criticism terminology and meant a special quality of literary
work, speech characteristic of personage, a special emotional or linguistic
look of separate literary work or an writer’s works, that is all peculiarities
and originalities. Coloring of a word shows its belonging to a certain people,
country, concrete historical epoch.
(local) and historical coloring of realia is a new additional meaning to its
main signification. A.S. Pushkin uses realias евнух, гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет in Bahchisaray’s
fountain; their specific coloring gives an oriental coloring to the poem.
According to dictionaries щербет is an oriental
fruit soft drink and it differs from lemonade by its regional belonging and it
is considered as a coloring. This neutral word turns into realia owing to
relation with this region. But if an inhabitant of this region who works in the
West faces with this word it gives him an association connected with his
motherland, his recollections and feelings.
makes us consider coloring a part of connotative meaning of a realia.
appropriate to compare realias – words with specific national and historical
coloring – connotative lexis – with words deprived of such coloring. We
may use two words – bird cherry and rook. They are only details
of nature: bird cherry is a tree that grows in Northern America, Europe and
Asia; and rook is specie of birds from crown family. These words are not
realias because of their wide-spreadness and they are not connected with people
or country. However associations connected with bird cherry (the height
of spring) and rook (expectation of spring) make a heart of Russian man
quicken. He connects their connotatively with realia not turning them into
example touches up some difficulties translating of the title of famous Russian
film Летят журавли into the French language: the French word grue
also means silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.
So they had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.
In these examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have full
and significant equivalents.
word is often substituted for its functional analogies. Foe example, bird
cherry can be substituted for early blooming tree or bush – for England it
can be substituted for plum or cherry-tree or even for lilac; instead of rook
they can use any convenient bird. The main idea is to evoke a reader of
translated text the same associations that has a reader of origin text.
The transmission of connotative word by means of devices that are
characteristic feature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an
undesirable results: a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.
the realia we noted that realias were allocated according to their place or/and
time. It is often happens that realia that means the same or close material
notions can be from different places and historical rubric: that is, they
differ from each other according to connotative meaning, coloring. For example,
supreme organ is called seim in Poland, Supreme Court in Russia, cortes
in Spain and Portugal, Public Meeting in Bulgaria, bundestag in
Germany, rikstaf in Swiss, storting in Norway, folketing
in Denmark, knesset in Israel. All these words mean Parliament and they
do not differ much from each other but their traditional names represent
characteristic national realia. Each of them has its own features that belong
only to it. However, but for these distinctions, national and historical
coloring would not allow substitution for another word in translation. Such
substitution would destroy all coloring, to be more exact; it would lead to
anachronisms and analogisms that can destroy the harmony, so called truth of
clearly seen when such close in meaning word like хайдутин and клефт are compared. Both
of them mean peasant-partisans who fought against Turkish ruling; both of them
mainly attacked local Turkish feudalists and representatives of Turkish
Administration, and also their landowners who called them “thieves” or
“bandits”; both of them acted in the same historical epoch (the time of Osman
Dominion on the Balkans). These dates about клефт are related with хайдутин; the only
difference is that хайдутин is Bulgarian and клефт is Greek.
But it is enough to be impossible to translate хайдутин as клефт.
and coloring are part of meaning that means they can be translated equal with
semantic content of a word. If a translator managed to convey only a semantic
lexical unit the translated text lost its coloring for the reader.
there are cases when connotation of a realia dies down, erasures. Such erasure
logically leads to the turning of realia into common, uncolored word.
distinguish this phenomenon from loss of coloring in a translation we use a
term “erasure” of coloring or connotation (erased reality).
exotic words can be adopted by language and lose their exotic character.
its status realia must lose quality that differs it from a common word, that is
loss of coloring. Here are some examples.
will take much time to turn proper realia such as Russian пирожок into national
uncolored, neutral word entered in the kitchens and languages of many countries
and to make people forget its strange origin.
to a strange realia it will also take much time to adopt it into a
language. It can turn into usual borrowing in the result of intensive usage of
this object in private life depriving it both original national coloring and a
kind of alliance.
seems that international and regional realias are to lose their status of
realia at first owing to their wide-spreadness. Many international realias
go around the world without losing their national originality. For example, the
names of money. There is another case with regional realias.
Their national coloring is almost equal to national but it is limited by its
regional belonging. For example, “the eastern coloring” is close to Syrian,
Turkish and Egyptian etc. All above-mentioned regarding to proper realias is
equal for national and regional realias.
2. These are the general considerations about coloring erasure or color
keeping that depends on peoples and countries. But there are positions where
color erasure depends on proper realia and its function in speech.
the realias can have an extended meaning in the context.
Sometimes a realia can be used in a text not in the direct but in the figurative
meaning. For example щербет can be used in Bulgarian language
as an adjective in the meaning of something oversweet and it is almost similar
with Russian сироп.
general we may say about realia using in the figurative meaning in all cases of
their usage as tropes, metaphor and comparison. When an author says about
mushroom’s cap “about two kopecks size” he does not mean a kopeck as a
kind of money but only its two signs: its size and its round form, so the
kopeck here has only word cover.
example, when an author describes land that is flat like a pan-cake he
takes only one characteristics of a pan-cake: its flatness and plane and
Russian reader even does not think about pan-cake as a food but it is only an
image that author promoted with the help of trope.
same with “stone jungles” and “cowboys of cold war” etc.
adjectives derived from mentioned realias can be literary comparisons and
metaphors. Using such words as богатырский, стопудовый,
аршинный, саженный at first we look at their figurative meaning, certain
signs but not on their sign as a realia: for example, пудовый means very heavy,
грошовый means very unimportant, cheap.
Among these examples there were phraseological units and set expressions as
well, where realias lose their status more often than in the mentioned cases.
these four cases realias are to lose their coloring that is the status of ralia
is to turn into common language unit. However, if we look more attentively we
shall see that a total erasure is not possible. If it happens it will be an
macaroni (international realia) and tyubeteyka (regional realia).
Macaroni, also spaghetti entered in the languages by way of
transcription. These words appeared in the languages having kept the meaning of
national Italian dish. The best example is Italian scornful nickname baked
macaroni pudding. Tyubeteyka also did not lose its oriental coloring
in spite of its wide-spreadness in the USSR and even on Gorky’s and Kuprin’s
heads reminds East.
should take into account all above-mentioned choosing a translation style in
transcription is usual way of translation of such words. Ruble, macaroni,
tyubeteyka keep their form after translation.
case when realia is wrong used or when it is a part of phraseologism. Right
translation is stipulated with finding the most concordant and equivalent words
that is usually deprived of coloring in the translation as a usual lexical
unit. For example, вершок in Goncharov’s story is translated into
the English language as a miserable part. Дюйм translated from
English inch is a realia but it also may have an extended meaning.
preservation in trope function (comparison, juxtaposition, metaphor etc.) could
mean the volume definition of one thing unknown by author. If, for example, an
English faces with two kopecks coin with the help of that we define a
size of mushroom cap in Russian translation he would never know the mushroom
size. Here a realia almost totally lost its natural coloring: in one language a
reader almost does not understand its meaning, seeing only the given quality
indicator. Transcription is possible in two languages only as an exception, for
example, international realia that indicator is known in both languages. But it
is easier to translate a realia as a neutral function equivalent because in the
original text realia is used without connotative meaning.
even in the third and fourth positions realia is kept. For example, translating
comparison we usually substitute a strange realia for ours: it is not always
convenient to use such phrases as как блин. The same is with
a realia that forms phraseologism.
In conclusion one should notice that translating a realia in one or
another means it is wanted to lose a trope and accordingly phraseologism. Trope
should be transferred by tropes, phraseologism by phraseologism; only “fulling”
will differ from origin one.
There are many cases of realia translation in the comparison when the realia
not only loses its coloring but also receives excessive connotation and they
are wide-spread. An author compares the contents of strange realia with his own
realia. And in a translation one notion is happened to be denoted with the two
realias: internal and external. What should a translator do to convey the
content of realia without coloring losing?
are some theoretical variants.
first a translator should transcribe each separate realia. For example, we can
face with such translation from the Czech language: “In the evening a young
teacher couple … invited us for barbecue. It reminded us our evening by the
camp fire where we did not do shpekachkis.” These two words: barbecue and
shpekachkis are explanations of one unknown word by another.
second place a translator can substitute an internal realia for his proper
realia. For example, he should substitute shpekachkis - for a regional
realia – Caucasus shashlik. As a result a reader would be able to get more
clear notion about Australian dish (barbecue is a Haitian word that was taken
by the English language from Spanish and then was borrowed by Australian). But
a reader would be astonished hearing from Czech about “evenings with shashlik”.
Theoretically this variant is more vicious because it leads to mixture of
different realias that belong to different nations.
third possibility is to refuse transcription of both realias and to convey
their contents with the help of descriptive translation that approximately can
sound so: “… in the evening we were invited for a picnic that reminded us our
evenings by a camp fire and we ate meat grilled on a spit.” But this
translation deprives the text of Australian coloring.
last, the fourth variant consists in transcription of external realia and
conveying internal realia with its functional equivalent. And we shall have the
next sentence: “In the evening … a young teacher pair invited us for barbecue.
It reminded us our evenings by camp fire when we ate meat grilled on a spit.”
last variant is considered to be more successful because the translation is
true and the translator managed to keep coloring having transcribed main
Margaret Aliger’s notes “Chilean summer” we face with more difficult case: “…
it is possible to eat here, one woman bakes pies – empanados. Empanados
is something similar with chebureks, they are very hot, tasty and big.”
Here we have three realias: the main external Spanish - empanados that
is explained as Russian national pies and one regional Caucasus – chebureks.
In the translation one should keep the main realia because it stands in the
center of the author’s attention and other realias should be substituted for
Analogisms and anachronisms.
Let’s suggest that a translator working at a novel
about Indian life decides to use only means of his own language, without
admitting strange realias and he substitutes pagoda for temple, sari
for dress or national suit, akhoby he substitutes for man-launder,
etc. As a result of such national coloring extermination specific Indian
features of the novel will vanish: it will be possible to consider any place as
a place of act or this place is neutral, uncolored, nameless country. This
method leads to coloring losing that spoils very much any translation. The mark
of this translation is bad.
But it is worse when a translator substitutes origin
realias for realias from his own language. Doing it he also substitutes
coloring of the translated work for a strange coloring. If we wear a Kazak in
Bulgarian aba or anteria, tsarvulis, iamurluk, if we make
him drink a wine from buklista and to eat banitsa, a reader will
recognize a Sofian shope but not a Kazak.
And it will be the worst translation when a
translator conveys original means of motley words of different coloring and
when a mixture of realias takes place. For example, translated into Russia
novel For Freedom by St. Dichev. A redactor substitutes Bulgarian,
Turkish, Greek and other realias for regional and national realias of Soviet
Union. Historical realias he substitutes for modern words. Therefore Bulgarian gadulka
was turned into Ukraine bandura, gamurluk was turned into
Caucasus burka, pastarma was described as dried meat and
Bulgarian banitsa was conveyed as Russian pie. Several historical
notions closely tied up with Bulgarian culture have totally lost their national
content. As a result of such vicious attitude to the realias translation a
reader gets unclear, contradictory notions about described reality; the novel
loses its cognitive meaning and bright national coloring and considerable part
of its literary merits. Here we speak about distortion of original images in
the result of substitution of national and historical realias for not
characteristic to it realias, in other words, about leading to analogisms and
anachronisms in a text. Analogisms and anachronisms are realias that do not
correspond to local and time surrounding of origin text.
For example, we face with the word guillotine
in the Bulgarian translation of Sheakspear’s work: “Essex slowly mounted the
guillotine.” The mistake is not very grave from temporal point of view. There
already existed the machine for execution in XVI – XVII centuries in Italy and
Scotland and also in France where Duke de Monmorancy was beheaded with the help
of such machine. The mistake is that famous doctor Josef Ignak Giyoten invented
his machine that got his name only 200 years later. Here we see the
translator’s history unknowing. Of course, the word scaffold should be
used there. We can see it from the context: “ He slowly mounted…” One can never
mount the guillotine but only scaffold.
The reason of such mistakes regarding national and
historical coloring is connected with author’s or translator’s personality, his
unknowing of real facts and historical situation and sometimes their unknowing
of some principal positions of theory translation, for example, about bad
results of strange realia substitution for a realia from translator’s native
Goethe wrote that translating labor was and remains one of the most important
and worthy matters connecting the entire universe together. These words
characterize translator as creative person who carries works beyond the limits
of one national culture and who serves to people giving these fruits of this
culture, created in new language form or vice versa, including achievements of
other nations in his national science and culture. It is one of the evidences
of the huge human role of translation in the history of human civilization.
national culture solving its problems carries its contribution in treasuring
house of literature creating something that belongs only to it, has
significance for all nations and proves that there are not small or big nations
or inferior languages.
of national culture confines with the help of translation has a great positive
and enriching influence on the language. It is true that together with the
translation many new ideas, discoveries, notions and so on penetrate in the
language and it leads to the appearance of new language elements and figurative
meanings. This fact is very important while translating from literary language
that is not fully developed. Therefore the literary language enriches
figurative possibilities, national culture, and spiritual development of this
nation. Creative beginning of translation is premise of creative attitude to
native language, its source of faith in its possibilities and beauty.
Concerning this point the translator also has another task to defend his native
speech from borrowings-parasites that clog and make it ugly, from strange forms
that artificially could crowd out its own national coloring.
task and mission of the translator especially the translator of feature
literature is defense of the riches and beauty of the native language, its
unlimited abilities to convey all that is kept in the greatest masterpieces of
literature can also be the indicator of condition, degree of development of
national language. Poetical translation of Shakespeare’s works by Boris
Pasternak that are very rich, refined and expressive in language might not
appear if Russian language of his time remained on the same level of
development. In this case concrete condition of our national language at the
times of B. Pasternak can be put as condition and factor of development of
poetical and translating talent and vice versa Pasternak's works are great
contribution in the development of Russian language.
level of translated literature, the quality of translation also assists to the
development of national beginning in the literature of nation.
beginning of literature, - I. R. Beher wrote, - is defined with the fact of
preservation, proceeding and creative development of other literatures. The
choice of elements that adopt it from literature of other nations shows its own
character and is judged if its indeed national originality no."
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Левик В. "Мастерство
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Гачечиладзе Т. Художественный
перевод и литературные взаимосвязи. М., "Советский писатель",
Бархударов Л. С. Язык
и перевод. М., 1975.
Комиссаров В. Н. Теория
перевода. М., "Высшая школа", 1990.
Фёдоров А. В. Основы
общей теории перевода. – М., 1983.
Швейцер А.Д. Теория
перевода. – М., 1988.
Латышев Л.К. Курс
перевода (эквивалентность перевода и способы её достижения). – М., 1981.
In the appendix the
author of this course paper analyses the preservation of national coloring in
the English novel written by Jane Austen Price and Prejudice translated
into Russian and stories Chameleon and Yonich written by Anton
Chekhov translaten into English. These both books are not the best example
swhere the national colorin gexists. But it is possible to judge about the
preservation of national coloring even basing on these books.
The preservation of
English national coloring will be given at first.
came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was so much
delighted with it that he agreed with Mr Morris immediately; that he is to take
possession before Michaelmas, and some of his servants are to be in the
house by the end of next week.’
он приезжал туда в карете, запряжённой четвёркой лошадей, осмотрел поместье и
пришёл в такой восторг, что тут же условился обо всём с мистером Моррисом. Он
приезжает к михайлову дню, и уже в конце будущей недели туда приедет
кое-кто из его прислуги.
Here the English word Michaelmas means 29 September the feast of St.
Michael and corresponds to “михайлов
день” in Russian with only one
difference that “михайлов день” is celebrated later in Russia because of difference
in the calendars. It is possible to say that the national coloring is
preserved because in English and Russian text there was not said the date but
the name of the feast.
The ladies were somewhat more
fortunate, for they had
advantage of ascertaining from an upper window, that he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse.
Дамы были несколько удачливей
его: им посчастливилось увидеть из верхнего окна,
что на нём был синий сюртук и что он приехал на вороной лошади.
Here the English word coat means outer garment with
sleeves, buttoned in the front and corresponds to the Russian word сюртук
that is also outer garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front and in Russian
it has long laps. It is possible for the Russian reader to imagine what kind of
garment Mr. Bingley wore.
Sir William Lucas had been
formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had made a tolerable fortune and risen
to the honor of knighthood by an address to the King , during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался
торговлей в Меритоне, где приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета,
благодаря специальному обращению к королю, когда он был мэром там.
Here the English
word mayoralty preserved its meaning and even form in the Russian translation.
In the Russian language the word мэр does not exist that is why the translator used this
word. But the author of this course paper considers that the Russian word мэр
should be explained in Russian translation because only a few people of 19-th
century could know the exact meaning of the word мэр.
4. I flatter myself that
my present overtures of good will are highly
Commendable, and that the circumstance of my
being next in the
entail of Longborn
estate, will be kindly overlooked on your side, and
not lead you to reject the offered olive
причине я льщу себя надеждой, что вы благожелательно отнесётесь к моему
настоящему изъявлению доброй воли и не отвергнете протянутую мной оливковую
Here the phrase olive branch in English corresponds to Russian phrase оливковая ветвь because in both languages this phrase means the
symbol of peace.
5. ‘Pray, my dear aunt, what is the difference in
affairs, between the mercenary and the prudent motive?’
Но, тётя, разве можно в матримониальных делах
найти точную грань между расчётливостью и благоразумием?
Here the English phrase matrimonial affairs fully correspond to the
Russian phrase матримониальные
дела because the word matrimonial has
Latin origin. Therefore it is possible to say about preservation of coloring in
spite of its Latin origin.
It was two ladies stopping in a
low phaeton at the garden gate.
увидели двух дам, сидевших в низеньком фаэтоне, который остановился у
Here the English word phaeton corresponds to the
Russian word фаэтон in the meaning and form as well. In English and
Russian phaeton means a vessel for noble people.
Now the author of this course
paper would like to analyze the non-preservation of
William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had made a
tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood by an address to the King , during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался
торговлей в Меритоне, где приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул
баронета, благодаря специальному обращению к королю.
Here the honor of knighthood
was translated into Russian as титул
баронета. The translator managed to
reveal for Russian reader what the honor of knighthood meant but the national
coloring of the phrase was erasured.
‘Yes; these four evenings have
enabled them to ascertain that they both like Ving-un better than Commerce.
-Да, эти четыре вечера
позволили им установить, что оба они игру в “двадцать одно” предпочитают
игре в покер.
3. Then, turning to Mr
Bennet, he offered himself as his antagonist at backgammon.
повернувшись к мистеру Беннету, он предложил ему сыграть
партию в триктрак.
Here the national
coloring of English games does not
because in the Russian translation they are only
substituted for their Russian equivalents.
4. About a
month ago I received this letter.
месяца назад я получил вот эту эпистолу.
English word letter has not national coloring but in
Russian translation it has historical coloring that is used
the formality of this letter.
Now the author of this
course paper would like to analyze the preservation of national coloring of
Russian book by Anton Chechov translated into English. Here two of his stories
Chameleon and Yonich are analyzed.
The author of this
course paper took some examples to show where the national coloring is
preserved and where it is not preserved. At first you will see the examples
where the national coloring is preserved.
Очумелов пересёк базарную площадь.
crossed the market-place.
В этом человеке он узнал Хрюкина.
He recognized in
this individual Khryukin.
Here the Russian surnames
Ochumelov and Khryukin preserved their national coloring owing to footnotes in
the English translation.
Доктор Старцев был назначен земским врачом.
Doctor Startsev was
appointed Zemstvo medical officer.
the Russian word земский врач preserved its national coloring but the
author of this course paper thinks that the translator should add a footnote
with the explanation of this word.
Зато он охотно играл в винт.
he played vint.
the national Russian game preserved its national coloring in the translation.
Now the author of
this course paper analyses the non-preservation of national coloring.
ним шагает городовой с решетом.
him constable carried a sieve.
the Russian rank городовой does not preserve its national coloring in the English
translation because городовой is lower rank in the city police in
tsarist Russia and English constable is only a policemen.
Я ему покажу Кузькину мать!
show him what’s what!
the non-preservation of Russian coloring is clearly seen. The phrase показать
Кузькину мать is very often used in the Russian language even now.
the Russian word шельма is translated as little rascal. Шельма in Russian means
rascal but in English even using word little the coloring is not completely
conveyed because here Chekhov uses this word to show Ochumelov’s tenderness
towards this dog and he does not offence it.
Он цигаркой ей в харю…
burned the end of his nose with lifted cigarette.
the Russian word цигарка is translated into English as lifted cigarette. Yes, цигарка is lifted cigarette
but in the English translation the Russian historical and national coloring of
this word is lost because now, for example, the word цигарка is not used
any more but it is quite understandable for Russoan reader.
English is only a small little dog but in Russian цуцик besides these
meaning also has a meaning of a person who feels cold and is affreid. So it is
clearly seen that the national coloring was not preserved.
В губернском городе.
clearly seen the absence of the word губернский so the national
coloring is not preserved and the author of this course paper thinks that the
translator should explain the meaning of the word.
С полверсты он прошёл пешком.
last part he went on foot.
Here the Russian
measure of length верста is not translated at all. The author of this course
paper thinks that the translator should use this word in the English
translation and give its meaning in the footnote.